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系統識別號 U0026-0208201219571300
論文名稱(中文) 重新探索全部呈現在改變偵測作業所具有的優勢
論文名稱(英文) Revisiting the whole-display superiority in change detection
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 吳宜蓉
研究生(英文) Yi-Jung Wu
學號 u76974013
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 53頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊政達
口試委員-葉怡玉
口試委員-汪曼穎
中文關鍵字 視覺短期記憶  空間佈局  顏色群聚 
英文關鍵字 visual short-term memory  spatial configuration  color grouping 
學科別分類
中文摘要 根據過去研究指出(Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000),在測試階段保有原本的空間佈局(全部呈現)和單一探針呈現相比,受試者在保有空間佈局的表現比單一探針的表現好。由此全部呈現優勢性可知,視覺短期記憶儲存了物件之間的空間相對關係以及物件之間的特性。但是,最近有研究發現不一致的結果,受試者在單一探針呈現的表現反而比全部呈現好。我們認為此結果的不一致是由於在測試階段是否使用事後線索與項目間的顏色是否重複所造成的。本研究共包含三個實驗。實驗一和二探討全部呈現優勢性的發生是否有其前提。實驗三探討顏色群聚對局部呈現所造成的影響,以便得知以顏色群聚在一起的項目所形成的佈局是否足夠受試者偵測顏色改變。實驗一和二結果顯示,全部呈現優勢性只有在測試階段使用事後線索與改變發生在顏色群聚內的項目才會出現。當沒有事後線索時,得到的是相反結果。實驗三結果顯示,當有一半的項目在測試階段被移除時,若仍維持顏色群聚項目之間的關係訊息,則受試者的表現會比沒有維持顏色群聚項目之間的關係訊息好。以上結果突顯視覺短期記憶會保有個別項目所形成的相對空間佈局,也可知空間關係訊息能否協助受試者偵測改變會受到決策負荷量和顏色群聚影響。
英文摘要 Change detection performance has been found to be more accurate when a test display preserves the original configuration (whole display) compared to single probe testing (see Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000). The whole-display superiority suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) stores spatial relations between objects as well as the identity of objects. However, recent findings showed a reversal effect: accuracy in the single-probe condition was higher than that in the whole-display condition. We postulated that the inconsistent results may have occurred because of the methodological differences in the presentation of a post-cue during test and redundancy of colors of memory items. Three experiments were conducted in this study. The first two experiments were conducted to test what conditions led to whole-display superiority. The results showed that whole-display superiority was observed only when a post-cue was provided during test and when a change occurred in items that were grouped by color. Conversely, the reversal effect was found when no post-cue was provided. In the third experiment, I further tested the effect of color grouping on color change detection when partial probe was tested. The results showed that change detection performance can still benefit from the relational information of the grouped items. Together, these results highlight that VSTM maintains relative spatial configuration between individual items. In addition, the benefit of relational information on color change detection depends on the degree of decision load at test and color grouping.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 實驗一 10
第一節 實驗方法 10
受試者 10
實驗設備 10
實驗材料與設計 11
實驗程序 14
第二節 實驗結果 15
一、顏色群聚和呈現方式 15
偵測敏感度 16
反應偏誤 16
二、改變位置和呈現方式 17
偵測敏感度 17
反應偏誤 18
第三節 討論 19
第三章 實驗二 21
第一節 實驗方法 21
受試者 21
實驗材料、設計及程序 21
第二節 實驗結果 24
一、顏色群聚和呈現方式 24
偵測敏感度 24
反應偏誤 25
二、改變位置和呈現方式 26
偵測敏感度 26
反應偏誤 27
第三節 討論 28
第四章 合併實驗一與實驗二 30
第一節 結果分析 30
第二節 小結 32
第五章 實驗三 33
第一節 實驗方法 33
受試者 33
實驗材料 33
實驗設計 33
實驗程序 36
第二節 實驗結果 37
偵測敏感度 37
反應偏誤 37
第三節 討論 39
第六章 合併實驗一和實驗三 40
第一節 結果分析 40
第二節 小結 42
第七章 綜合討論 44
第一節 研究結果討論 44
第二節 未來研究方向 47
記憶階段登錄的時間 47
項目數量 47
顏色群聚數 47
位置 48
參考文獻 49
附錄 51

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