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系統識別號 U0026-0208201117360300
論文名稱(中文) 測量車前拍影像空三網形評估
論文名稱(英文) MMS Forward-Photographed Image Triangulation Network Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 藍文浩
研究生(英文) Wen-Hau Lan
學號 p6697104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 150頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡展榮
口試委員-吳究
口試委員-陳良健
口試委員-蔡榮得
中文關鍵字 移動式測繪系統  SIFT  可靠度  誤差橢圓 
英文關鍵字 MMS  SIFT  Reliability  Error ellipse 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著空間資訊需求與日俱增,移動式測繪系統成為收集資料的一項新技術。移動式測繪系統之移動平台可包含衛星、飛機、汽車等,其中衛星與飛機均屬大範圍之資料收集,利用衛星與飛機進行較小區域的資料收集或更新則不敷成本,而航測更新地圖或數值地形模型時會有遮蔽問題,而車載MMS(Mobile Mapping System)可供調繪補測。本研究利用車載MMS進行拍攝獲取街景影像,利用自動化匹配法獲得影像的匹配點,匹配點代入像片三角平差計算,但常會無法收斂或發散。本研究選擇尺度不變特徵轉換(Scale-Invariant Feature Transform, SIFT)匹配法進行匹配,並且配合後續資料處理步驟減少弱化網形的因素,最後與人工量測共軛點的平差結果進行比較,SIFT匹配點的像片三角計算之檢核點DRMS(平差後檢核點坐標差向量長度的RMS值)為183mm,檢核點中最大的差值向量長度為353mm,而由平差結果推估SIFT匹配點精度約為1/4像元、人工量測像點精度約為1/2像元。本研究亦對於測量車前拍影像的網形進行研究與分析,當影像數由18張減少至14張,部分物點的最大視差角減小,造成整體的網形強度減弱,像片三角定位精度變差。本研究中實驗區長約91m、寬約20m,在測區四周與中間各佈設一個全控點、共5個全控點,像片三角計算的檢核點DRMS在200mm以內,檢核點中最大差值向量長度在450mm以內。當聯合GPS(Global Positioning System)/IMU(Inertial Measuring Unit)資料,在無全控點情形下,像片三角計算的物點σ ̂_RMS(後驗精度的均方根值)為1583mm、檢核點DRMS為881mm。當有加入三個全控點,像片三角計算的物點σ ̂_RMS為90mm、檢核點DRMS為153mm,檢核點中最大差值向量長度在400mm以內。
英文摘要 Along with dramatically increasing demand on spatial information, the Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) provide an alternative for collecting spatial data. MMS can be composed of different platforms such as satellites, airplanes and automobiles. Among these, satellites and airplanes are used in large areas, however they don’t suit for small areas. Moreover, there will be a problem of occlusion when aerial or spaceborne photogrammetry is used to produce or update maps and Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). Nevertheless, the problems mentioned above can be solved by the land vehicle MMS in an economical manner.
The study uses several image matching methods to find conjugate points in images acquired by MMS driving along a street, but due to the weak geometric network, the phototriangulation adjustment often diverge. In addition, conjugate points are measured manually or matched by means of SIFT method. The DRMS of bundle adjustment result is 183mm by SIFT method and the maximum difference vector length on all check points is 353mm. The bundle adjustment results show that the photo coordinates measured by SIFT and manually have the precision 1/4 pixel and 1/2 pixel, respectively. This thesis also focuses on triangulation network analysis. When the number of images reduces from 18 to 14, the maximum parallactic angle decreases, and it causes poor photogrammetry network and worse accuracy of photo triangulation. And 5 control points are located in the center and four corners of a test area of 91m x 20m. The DRMS of check points after bundle adjustment is within 200mm. The maximum difference vector length is less than 450mm. When only GPS(Global Positioning System)/IMU(Inertial Measuring Unit) data are used as constraints in the bundle adjustment, the σ ̂_RMS of object points is 1583 mm and the DRMS of full control points is 881 mm. However, if three full control points are used, the σ ̂_RMS and DRMS are 90 mm and 153mm, and the maximum difference vector length on all check points is less than 400mm.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.2.1 測量車發展 3
1.2.2 測量車應用 10
1.2.3 SIFT文獻回顧 12
1.3 論文架構 14
第二章 SIFT、可靠度、誤差橢圓與直接地理定位系統 15
2.1 SIFT演算法 15
2.1.1 尺度空間極值偵測 16
2.1.2 特徵點定位與選擇 18
2.1.3 求特徵點之主方向 21
2.1.4 對特徵點局部區域描述 22
2.2 可靠度理論 25
2.2.1 內可靠度 31
2.2.2 外可靠度 31
2.3 誤差橢圓理論 32
2.4 直接地理定位系統 36
2.4.1 像坐標系統與物空間坐標系統之關係 37
2.4.2 直接地理定位 37
第三章 實驗資料說明 40
3.1 實驗區資料說明 40
3.2 處理像片三角易發散之步 48
第四章 實驗與分析 52
4.1 SIFT與人工匹配點成果比較 53
4.2 最大視差角與物點精度的關係 76
4.3 全控點分佈與定位精度之關係 95
4.4 聯合GPS/IMU資料對定位精度的關係 114
4.5 模擬地形圖調繪補測之結果 136
4.5.1 未加入地面控制點 137
4.5.2 加入1個地面控制點 139
第五章 結論與建議 143
參考文獻 145
附錄A 150
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