||Development of sustainable indicators for roadways from sustainable regulations in Vietnam
||Department of Civil Engineering
||Nguyen Thi Cam Lai
Sustainable transportation has been a trend and relevant regulations have been set up in many countries. The primary goal is to improve the sustainability of transportation infrastructures such as CO2 reduction, environmental enhancement and protection, and energy and natural resource conservation. Although prior studies have suggested to incorporate sustainability into development of transportation, it still needs to be applicable to a particular context of a region. Among the transportation sectors, the roadway plays a vital role due to its large network mileage and continual development, particularly in developing countries like Vietnam. Roadway construction also is one of the primary contributors to environmental problems. The practical method is to develop tools to measure the impact reduction and facilitate sustainability in roadways.
In Vietnam, six regulations regarding sustainability and transportation implement sustainability and transport development in Vietnam. The articles in the regulations may present or imply goals, approaches and specific measures that can be operationalized to facilitate implementation. This research thus aimed to develop sustainable indicators from the regulations for roadways in Vietnam.
This study adopted literature review and content analysis methods. Firstly, the six regulations were analyzed to examine the context and contents, and to derive environmental issues in transportation. The issues then were linked to performance indicators in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Greenroads, or Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to organize issues to standardized indicators. Finally, it reviewed requirements of indicators from the three sustainability assessment systems to develop the contents of the sustainable indicators in this study.
As a result, 17 indicators were developed under six categories, with contents of each indicator for evaluating sustainability. The proposed indicators can be considered as a source of data for evaluating sustainability and for the stakeholders such as owners, designers, and contractors in improving how to design and construct sustainable roadways in Vietnam.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Motivation 2
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Research Method and Process 3
1.4 Research Scope and Limitations 4
1.5 Thesis Structure 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Sustainable Transportation Infrastructure 6
2.1.1 Importance of environmental issues 6
2.1.2 Transportation infrastructure 7
2.1.3 Impacts of roadway construction on the environment 8
2.2 Sustainable Roadway Performance 9
2.2.1 Indicators of roadway sustainability assessment 10
2.2.2 Stakeholders of roadway sustainable performance 12
CHAPTER 3 SUSTAINABILITY REGULATIONS IN VIETNAM 14
3.1 Six Sustainable Regulations 14
3.1.1 Information of regulations 14
3.1.2 Sustainable development strategy of Vietnam for 2011-2020 (R1) 15
3.1.3 Strategic directions for the promotion of environmentally sustainable transport in Vietnam by 2020 (R2) 17
3.1.4 Road transport development scheme to 2020 and orientation towards 2030 (R3) 18
3.1.5 National Action Plan on Green Growth in Vietnam for the period of 2014-2020 (R4) 19
3.1.6 National Energy Efficiency and Conservation for the period of 2012-2015 (R5) 19
3.1.7 National Energy Efficiency Programme for the period of 2019-2030 (R6) 20
3.2 Environmental Issues from Six Regulations 21
3.2.1 Issue derivation 21
3.2.2 Derived issues 23
CHAPTER 4 INDICATORS DEVELOPMENT 26
4.1 Sustainability Assessment Systems 26
4.1.1 GRI Standards 26
4.1.2 Greenroads v2 29
4.1.3 Sustainable development goals (SDGs) 30
4.2 Linking Regulations to GRI, Greenroads or SDGs 31
4.2.1 Issues and GRI indicators 34
4.2.2 Issues and Greenroads indicators 36
4.2.3 Issues and SDGs 39
4.2.4 Developed indicators 40
CHAPTER 5 ESTABLISHMENT OF ASSESSMENT SYSTEM 45
5.1 Indicators and Weightings 45
5.1.1 Finalizing indicators 45
5.1.2 Weightings of indicators 47
5.2 Contents of Indicators 49
5.2.1 Developing contents of indicators 49
5.2.2 Final assessment indicators 54
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 60
6.1 Conclusions 60
6.2 Research Contribution 62
6.3 Recommendations 62
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