||Automation, Job Insecurity and The Pursuit of Educational Opportunities in Digital Skills
||Automation, Job Insecurity and The Pursuit of Educational Opportunities in Digital Skills
||Institute of International Management
||Yazmina Blanca Paola Buitrago Molina
Long-Term Job Insecurity
Pursuit of Education
By applying a questionnaire to a random sample in the United States of America, this thesis aimed to find out if the idea of automation and the digital transformation of the workplace created job insecurity and if, as a result, people are preparing through the pursuit of education on work-ready digital skills.
The findings of this thesis suggest that Americans are indeed preparing by developing their digital skills, but the reason is not job insecurity. Contrary to our hypothesis, those who were more job insecure had taken fewer steps towards preparing themselves with digital skills; nonetheless as predicted in this thesis internet searching had a relationship with the pursuit of education, showing that those that are more active online are the ones that have been more active in their digital skills preparation.
The findings of this thesis satisfy a research gap on job insecurity research by studying the pursuit of education as a potential outcome. From a managerial point of view, this work is useful to companies, as it brings light to human resource managers regarding the preparation of the workforce for the future. Finally, it is also a topic of interest for governments and international organizations, since the preparation of the labor force for the changes of the years to come is a topic that concerns the globe.
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Motivation. 4
1.3 Research Gap. 7
1.4. Research Objectives. 7
1.5. Research Contributions. 8
1.6. Research Structure. 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Theoretical Background. 11
2.1.1 The Transactional Stress Theory and Job Insecurity. 11
2.1.2 Proactive Coping Theory. 12
2.1.3 Model of Antecedents and Outcomes of Job Insecurity. 15
2.2. Variable definitions: 17
2.2.1 Technological Change as an Antecedent of Long-Term Job Insecurity: The Perception of the Long-Term Future. 17
2.2.2 Long-Term Job Insecurity: 20
2.2.2 Proactive Coping. 21
2.2.3. The Pursuit of Educational Opportunities. 23
2.2.4 Internet Searching. 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 28
3.1 Research model: 28
3.2 Summary of Variable Definitions. 29
3.3 Summary of The Hypotheses. 29
3.4 Construct Measurements. 30
3.4.1 Long-Term Future Perception. 30
3.4.2 Long-Term Job Insecurity. 31
3.4.3 Internet Searching. 32
3.4.4 Proactive Coping. 33
3.4.5. The Pursuit of Educational Opportunities. 34
3.5 Data Analysis. 36
3.5.1 Data Collection. 37
3.5.2 Descriptive Statistics. 38
3.5.3 Factor Analysis. 38
3.5.4 PLS Structural Equation Modeling. 39
3.5.5 Ordinal Logistic Regression. 40
3.5.6 Control Variables. 40
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 41
4.1 Data Collection. 41
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents. 43
4.3 Descriptive Statistics. 45
4.4 Reliability and Validity Test. 48
4.5 Model Fit. 50
4.6 PLS Approach: Assessment of Structural Model. 51
4.7 Mediation Effect. 53
4.8 Ordinal Logistic Regression. 54
4.8.1. Categorical Variable Information. 55
4.8.2 Model Fit Information and Goodness of Fit. 56
4.8.3 Parameter Estimates, the main OLR Analysis 57
4.8.4 Test of Parallel Lines. 59
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 61
5.1 Discussion and Conclusions. 61
5.1.1 Discussion. 61
5.1.2 Conclusions. 68
5.2 Theoretical Implications. 69
5.3 Managerial Implications. 70
5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research. 71
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