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系統識別號 U0026-0202201805392100
論文名稱(中文) 以自適性動態範圍調整與信號補償式主動噪音消除技術進行輔助聽力裝置聽力補償與測試之研究
論文名稱(英文) Adaptive Dynamic Range Adjustment and Compensated Active Noise Cancellation for Amplification and Audiometric Tests Using Bluetooth Assistive Listening Devices
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 張弘岳
研究生(英文) Hung-Yue Chang
學號 N28991340
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 69頁
口試委員 召集委員-廖文輝
共同指導教授-羅錦興
指導教授-戴政祺
口試委員-雷曉方
口試委員-陳世中
口試委員-陳世綸
共同指導教授-羅敦信
中文關鍵字 輔助聽力裝置  噪音下漢語語音聽辨測試  自適性動態範圍最佳化  藍牙  華語單音節字音語音聽辨測驗  主動噪音消除  聽力閾值測試  閾值平移  實耳閾值衰減 
英文關鍵字 assistive listening device (ALD)  Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT)  adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO)  Bluetooth, Mandarin Monosyllable Recognition Test (MMRT)  active noise cancellation (ANC)  hearing threshold test  threshold shift  real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 輔助聽力裝置(ALD)因為容易取得、價格合理、而且不需聽力師選配,因此適合輕度到中度聽力損失個案。傳統ALD利用無線技術將遠處聲音傳到近端而提升訊噪比,然而若不搭配遠端發射器,隨身配戴的輔聽器在噪音環境下因採用線性放大而訊噪比較低;另一方面,助聽器雖然較輔聽器有較佳表現,整合無線技術以達成電話及音樂等功能卻非易事。本研究採用自適性動態範圍調整及信號補償式主動噪音消除(ANC)技術應用於藍牙輔助聽力裝置,具有助聽、電話、音樂、聽力測試等功能,並與線性裝置在安靜與噪音環境下比較其效益。

應用於輔助聽力的自適性動態範圍調整包括助聽功能之下的自適性動態範圍最佳化(ADRO)策略與電話功能之下的壓縮放大策略,兩者皆以高音漸傾型感音神經性聽力損失進行選配。在安靜與噪音環境下,助聽功能比較ADRO與線性策略,電話功能則比較壓縮放大與線性策略。17與12位母語為華語、年齡分佈於21–68歲的輕中度聽損個案分別參與助聽與電話功能的研究。客觀聽測分別以噪音下漢語語音聽辨測試(MHINT)與華語單音節字音語音聽辨測驗(MMRT)進行助聽與電話功能的測試,主觀聽測則採用使用者對整體語音音質滿意度。

在聽力測試方面,本研究在安靜、45 dB HL遮蔽窄頻噪音、寬頻語音噪音與白噪音環境下比較信號補償式主動噪音消除耳機與TDH39、Audiocups等聽力測試耳機。24位年齡分佈於20–25歲的正常聽力個案參與此項研究。噪音環境下的閾值平移以純音閾值量測結果來計算;實耳降噪能力則以實耳閾值衰減(REAT)來界定。

助聽功能結果顯示,噪音環境下ADRO系統的MHINT語句聽辨值訊噪比在單耳配戴與未配戴間展現顯著性差異,但是線性裝置無顯著差異。整體語音音質滿意度顯示安靜環境下使用者對ADRO及線性系統同樣滿意,但是噪音環境下對ADRO比線性系統滿意。電話功能結果展現壓縮放大系統的MMRT平均語音聽辨得分顯著比線性裝置高(安靜及噪音環境下分別高出57% 及 53% );語音音質滿意度指出安靜環境下使用者對兩種系統滿意度介於中度與滿意,然而噪音環境下對壓縮放大系統比線性裝置滿意。

聽力閾值測試結果發現在窄頻、寬頻語音與白噪音環境下,ANC耳機250及500 Hz的平均閾值顯著低於TDH39聽力測試耳機,250 Hz的平均閾值也顯著低於Audiocup聽力測試耳機;同時在窄頻噪音下,ANC耳機250及500 Hz的閾值平移與TDH39耳機相較分別減少14.2及12.3 dB。ANC耳機能夠在45 dB HL遮蔽寬頻語音與白噪音環境下以15 dB HL準確量測250 Hz的閾值,也能在窄頻噪音環境下以20 dB HL準確量測250 Hz的閾值,其結果和安靜環境並無區別,相對的TDH39 及Audiocups耳機則產生顯著的閾值平移。

以上結果展現自適性動態範圍調整應用於藍牙輔助聽力裝置助聽與電話功能對輕中度聽損個案的效益,特別是噪音環境下此效益更為顯著;在聽力閾值測試方面,信號補償式主動噪音消除耳機比傳統聽力測試耳機在250及500 Hz有較低的閾值平移,而且能夠在45 dB HL遮蔽窄頻與寬頻噪音環境下準確量測到20 dB HL閾值。此研究提出一藍牙輔助聽力裝置的創新架構設計,以自適性動態範圍調整應用於輔助聽力提升噪音下的訊噪比,同時以信號補償式主動噪音消除應用於噪音下閾值量測,此設計提供未來輔助聽力裝置搭配行動應用軟體執行輔助聽力與自我選配功能的方向。
英文摘要 Assistive listening devices (ALDs) are accessible and affordable solutions for helping people with hearing loss without the necessity of fittings by an audiologist. Traditional ALDs enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by coupling signals at a long distance to a local device through wireless transmissions. Without a transmitter, the SNRs of body-worn devices that employ a linear amplification scheme are reduced significantly in noisy environments. Conversely, it is costly to integrate wireless technologies for accessing telephony and music functions in hearing aids that have superior performance to body-worn linear ALDs. This study incorporated the adaptive dynamic range adjustment and the compensated active noise cancelation (ANC) schemes into a Bluetooth ALD with amplification, telephony, music, and audiometric test functions. The benefits of these schemes in quiet and noisy environments were evaluated through comparison with linear schemes.

The adaptive dynamic range adjustment for assistive listening included adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the amplification function and compression amplification in the telephony function, both of which were incorporated with a prescription for sloping-type sensorineural hearing loss. Comparisons were performed between linear and ADRO schemes in the amplification function, and between linear and compression amplification schemes in the telephony function in quiet and noisy environments. Seventeen and twelve native Mandarin speakers aged 21–68 years with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in the studies of the amplification and telephony functions, respectively. The Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT) and the Mandarin Monosyllable Recognition Test (MMRT) were the objective measurements for the amplification and telephony functions, respectively. Participant satisfaction was the subjective measurement for both functions.

In the audiometric tests, this study compared a custom-designed compensated hybrid ANC earphone with TDH39 and Audiocups audiometric earphones under conditions of quiet, 45 dB hearing level (HL) masking narrowband noise, wideband speech-shaped noise, and white noise. Twenty-four normal-hearing adults, aged 20–25 years, participated in this study. The pure-tone thresholds were measured to characterize the threshold shifts under noisy conditions, and real-ear attenuations at thresholds were assessed to quantify real-ear noise reduction performance.

For the amplification function, the ADRO system exhibited a significant difference in the MHINT reception threshold for sentences in noisy environments between monaurally aided and unaided conditions, whereas the linear system did not. The satisfaction rating regarding overall speech quality indicated that the participants were satisfied with the speech quality of both ADRO and linear schemes in quiet environments, and they were more satisfied with the ADRO scheme than with the linear scheme in noisy environments. Regarding the telephony function, the mean MMRT scores of the compression amplification scheme were significantly higher than those of the linear scheme (57% and 53% higher in quiet and noisy environments, respectively). The mean satisfaction ratings of both schemes were between neutral and satisfied in the quiet environment, whereas the participants were more satisfied with the compression scheme than with the linear scheme in the noisy environment.

Regarding the hearing threshold tests, the ANC earphone exhibited significantly lower mean thresholds than those of the TDH39 earphone at 250 and 500 Hz and those of the Audiocups earphone at 250 Hz under narrowband, speech-shaped, and white noise conditions. Compared with the TDH39 earphone at 250 and 500 Hz, applying a hybrid ANC earphone reduced threshold shifts by 14.2 and 12.3 dB, respectively, under the narrowband noise condition. Without a significant difference in performance from that under the quiet condition at 250 Hz, the ANC earphone was capable of measuring thresholds at a 15 dB HL presentation level under 45 dB HL masking speech-shaped and white noise conditions and a 20 dB HL presentation level under the narrowband noise condition, whereas the TDH39 and Audiocups earphones exhibited significant threshold shifts.

These results demonstrate the benefits of incorporating the adaptive dynamic range adjustment scheme with a prescription fitting for sloping-type hearing loss into the amplification and telephony functions of a Bluetooth ALD, especially in noisy environments, for people who experience mild or moderate hearing loss. In the hearing threshold tests, the compensated hybrid ANC earphone provided lower threshold shifts than the traditional audiometric earphones, and it was capable of measuring thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz with a presentation level starting from 20 dB HL under 45 dB HL masking narrowband and wideband noise. This paper provides an innovative design of a Bluetooth ALD in which the adaptive dynamic range adjustment scheme enhances SNRs for assistive listening and the compensated hybrid ANC enables threshold measurements in noisy environments. This study facilitates the development of assistive listening and self-fitting functions for future ALDs operated with mobile applications.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 VI
Table of Contents VII
Table Captions IX
Figure Captions X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Assistive Listening Devices 1
1.2 Amplification and Compression Strategies 4
1.3 Diagnosis of Hearing Loss 6
1.4 Organization of Dissertation 8
Chapter 2 Methods 10
2.1 Instruments 10
2.1.1 ALD 11
2.1.2 Compensated Active Noise Cancellation Earphone 11
2.2 Amplification and Compression Strategies for the Assistive Listening 13
2.2.1 Audiograms 13
2.2.2 Strategies for Amplification 13
2.2.3 Strategies for Telephony 17
2.3 Compensated Active Noise Cancellation Method for Hearing Tests 22
2.4 Participants 27
2.4.1 Participants for Amplification 28
2.4.2 Participants for Telephony 29
2.4.3 Participants for Hearing Tests 30
2.5 Data Collection 31
2.5.1 Data Collection for Amplification 31
2.5.2 Data Collection for Telephony 33
2.5.3 Data Collection for Hearing Tests 36
2.6 Statistical Analysis 38
Chapter 3 Results 39
3.1 Reception Threshold for Sentences and Satisfaction for Amplification 39
3.2 Word Recognition Scores and Satisfaction for Telephony 42
3.3 Hearing Test Results 44
3.3.1 Hearing Thresholds 44
3.3.2 Real-ear Attenuation at Thresholds 47
Chapter 4 Discussion 49
4.1 Amplification of ALD 49
4.2 Telephony of ALD 51
4.3 Hearing Tests 54
Chapter 5 Conclusion 58
References 61
Appendix A 67
Appendix B 68
Publication List 69
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