||A Study of the Stress Characteristics of Tapered TSVs
||Department of Engineering Science
在三維集成中，矽通孔（Through Silicon Via，TSV）是實現垂直互連的一種重要結構。然而該技術仍面臨許多挑戰性的問題，如何迅速準確建立其等效模型、提取熱應力分佈便是其中之一。常用的分析方法是將TSV 等效成圓柱，應用傳輸線理論分析。然而，受限於製程技術，製造的矽通孔傾角最高可達20 度，此時傳統傳輸線方法將不再適用，對錐形TSV 的建模分析就顯得十分必要。
本文針對錐型 TSV，通過Ansys模擬研究它從室溫溫度25 度升至275 度時由於材料間熱膨脹係數不匹配產生的熱應力情況。本文的主要工作歸納如下：掌握了應用於三維互連的TSV 結構及其熱應力的產生原理，基於以上內容選擇單層單一TSV及陣列TSV模型進行研究。建立模型，施加熱負載，對其進行熱應力分析，在相同上半徑下，圓柱TSV 相較於錐形TSV的最大熱應力數值更大，分佈更不均勻的特點。且錐形TSV相較於圓柱TSV有較小的熱應力影響範圍。
In three-dimensional IC integration, Through Silicon Via (TSV) is an important structure for vertical interconnection. However, this technology still faces many challenging problems such as how to quickly and accurately establish its equivalent model and extract the thermal stress distribution. A commonly used model is to convert TSV equivalently into a cylinder and apply transmission line theory analysis. However, limited by the process technology, the tilt angle of the manufactured TSV can be up to 20 degrees. At this time, the traditional transmission line method is still applicable, and modeling and analysis of the tapered TSV are necessary.
In this thesis, for the tapered TSV, finite element simulation is used to study the thermal stress caused by the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between materials at room temperature from 25 °C to 275 °C. The main work of this thesis is summarized as follows: The TSV structure applied to three-dimensional interconnects and the principle of thermal stress generation are mastered. Based on the above content, a single-layer single TSV and array TSV models are selected for research. The model is established, the thermal load is applied, and the thermal stress is analyzed. Under the same upper radius, the cylindrical TSV has a larger maximum thermal stress than the tapered TSV, and the distribution is more uneven. And the tapered TSV has a smaller thermal stress range than the cylindrical TSV.
Extended Abstract II
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 論文架構 5
第2章 基礎理論 6
2.1 TSV概述 6
2.1.1 TSV 技術與結構 6
2.1.2 TSV 製造製程概述 7
2.2 分析軟體介紹 10
2.2.1 熱分析原理 11
第3章 研究方法與模擬設置 13
3.1 有限元素模擬規劃 13
3.2 有限元素模擬設定 14
3.2.1 定義TSV之材料性質 14
3.2.2 建立有限元素模型 15
(1) 單一圓柱TSV結構 15
(2) 單一錐形TSV結構 16
(3) 陣列圓柱TSV結構 16
(4) 陣列錐形TSV結構 17
3.2.3 切割網格 18
3.2.4 定義邊界條件 20
第4章 結果與討論 21
4.1 一次一因子實驗法 21
4.1.1 一次一因子模擬選擇 21
4.1.2 一次一因子模擬結果 22
4.2 熱應力影響範圍 34
第5章 結論與建議 42
5.1 結論 42
5.2 建議 43
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