||Seismic Retrofit of the Middle to High-Rise RC Building with Soft-Story by Tuned Mass Friction Damper (TMFD)
||Department of Civil Engineering
Incremental Dynamic Analysis
Simplified 2-DOF model
Probabilistic-based seismic assessment and retrofit
Series-arranged Tuned Mass Friction Damper
The traditional structural retrofit methods such as column widening, installation of wing wall, and shear wall are commonly adopted in Taiwan. These methods are effective, but their application may encounter significant challenges due to the need for construction points in areas utilized by the building users. Therefore, a tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) was proposed in this study since it can be installed on the rooftop of the building without occupying the habitable area. In most researches, it is found that the TMFD was commonly designed with a parallel arranged Coulomb’s dry friction element and linear spring element. It becomes more interesting when the TMFD with a series arranged friction element and viscoelastic element was introduced as an alternative to the common type of TMFD in this research. The performance of the proposed TMFD was investigated by comparing it with that of a conventional TMD. The evaluation of the seismic performance of the mid-to-high rise RC building with weak and soft story using a tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) was proposed and investigated by conducting extensive parametric study. The building was modelled as a simplified two degrees of freedom system with on-off switching mechanism. It accounts for the sliding-sticking mechanism of the TMFD and the viscoelastic-plastic deformation of the primary structure. The effects of mass ratio, tuning period ratio, friction coefficient, and peak ground acceleration on the response reduction were investigated. The seismic capacity of the system attached to TMFD was evaluated by conducting the nonlinear dynamic analysis with the method of incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and developing the collapse fragility curve. It was found that at a given level of excitation, an optimum value of mass ratio, tuning period ratio, and friction coefficient exist at which the peak displacement of primary structure attains its minimum value. It was also observed that the effect of tuning period ratio is necessary to be considered in the optimum design of TMFD. By selecting appropriate optimum values of controlling parameters, higher efficiency of TMFD with higher response reduction can be achieved.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Research Background 1
1.2. Objectives 3
1.3. Scope of Project 3
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1. Earthquake Review 5
2.1.1. 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake 5
2.1.2. 2016 Meinong Earthquake 5
2.1.3. 2018 Hualien Earthquake 5
2.2. Seismic Design Code for Buildings in Taiwan 6
2.2.1. Regular and Irregular Building Structures 6
2.2.2. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis Method 8
2.3. Literature review on Soft Story Effect 9
2.4. Seismic Performance Assessment 10
2.4.1. Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment Procedure 10
2.4.2. Structural Performance Level 11
2.4.3. Development of Collapse Fragility Curve 14
220.127.116.11. Consideration of Uncertainty 14
18.104.22.168. Seismic Capacity Evaluation 16
2.4.4. Literature review on Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) 16
2.5. Seismic Retrofit using Tuned Mass Friction Damper 17
2.5.1. Application of Tuned Mass Friction Damper 17
2.6. Simplified Double Degree of Freedom (2-DOF) System 18
2.6.1. Four-phases Formulation 22
22.214.171.124. Viscoelastic-Sticking Phase (Off-off phase) 22
126.96.36.199. Viscoplastic-Sticking Phase (On-off phase) 23
188.8.131.52. Viscoelastic-Sliding Phase (Off-on phase) 24
184.108.40.206. Viscoplastic-Sliding Phase (On-on phase) 25
2.6.2. Incremental Analysis using Computation Modules 26
220.127.116.11. Linear time-invariant system 27
2.6.3. Algorithm 28
CHAPTER 3 SEISMIC EVALUATION 42
3.1. Basic Building Information 42
3.2. Numerical modeling using ETABS 42
3.2.1. Component Size 43
3.2.2. ETABS Model using Default ASCE 41-13 Hinges 43
3.2.3. ETABS Model using TEASPA Hinges 45
3.2.4. Inspection of Weak and Soft story building 48
3.3. Plastic Hinge Verification 48
3.3.1. ASCE 41-13 Plastic Hinge Verification 49
3.3.2. TEASPA V3.0 Plastic Hinge Verification 53
3.3.3. Comparison between ASCE Hinges and TEASPA Hinges 55
3.4. Seismic Assessment Results from Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis 55
3.4.1. Frame Structure 56
3.4.2. Weak and Soft First Story Structure 59
3.4.3. Comparison of the Performance Points between Frame Structure and Weak and Soft First Story Structure 60
3.5. Seismic Assessment Results from Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) 61
3.5.1. Selection of ground-motion time histories 61
3.5.2. Development of collapse fragility curve from IDA 62
CHAPTER 4 SEISMIC RETROFIT 131
4.1 Simplified Analysis Model 131
4.2 Validation of the simplified SDOF Model 133
4.3 Parameter Setting of Tuned Mass Friction Damper (TMFD) 134
4.4 Parameter Study 136
4.4.1 Friction Coefficient 138
4.4.2 Tuning Period Ratio 139
4.4.3 Mass Ratio 140
4.4.4 Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) 141
4.4.5 Optimum Parameters 141
4.5 Seismic Capacity Evaluation 143
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 213
5.1 Conclusions 213
5.2 Suggestions 218
APPENDIX A: Inter-story drift ratio of the primary structure at 3FL (Model 3) 224
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