||Network Protection, Optimal Operation, and Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plants
||Department of Electrical Engineering
Fault Current Limiter
Adaptive Protection Strategy
Virtual Power Plant
Energy Storage System
Renewable Energy Source
In light of the development of renewable energy and concerns over environmental protection, renewable energy resources have become a trend in distribution systems. Accordingly, the dispatch strategy of the system need to be changed. As an aggregator involved in various renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and loads, a virtual power plant plays a key role as not only a consumer but a prosumer. The structure also transform the traditional one-direction power delivery to bi-direction. The virtual power plant thus can enable itself to supply energy and ancillary services to the utility grid to maximize its profit.
To deal with the security, dispatch, operation and bidding issues faced by VPP, this dissertation proposes an overcurrent protection strategies with distributed generations and fault current limiters, the demand response potential analysis, elasticity demand response model construction, and operation and bidding strategy determination. By scheduling the energy storage systems, demand response, and renewable energy sources, virtual power plants can join bidding markets to achieve maximum benefits. The potential uncertainties caused by renewable energy sources and the demand response are considered in a robust optimization model. Moreover, a bi-level game theory model is introduced to modify the bidding environment among market operators and all the participants.
The numerical results demonstrate the stable operation and profit maximized can be achieved through the proposed adaptive protection scheme and operation and bidding strategy optimization. By involving the uncertainty consideration and thus getting rid of penalty due to failing to provide the winning ancillary service quantity, the economic efficiency is proved to be increased.
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables x
Acronym and Nomenclature 1
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 Backgrounds and Motivation 5
1.2 Review of Literature 7
1.3 Research Objective and Methods 10
1.4 The Overall Framework of The Proposed Method 12
Chapter 2. THE ADAPTIVE PROTECTION STRATEGIES 14
2.1 The Problem Caused by FCL Application 14
2.2 Data Collection and Preprocessing 17
2.2.1 Data Collection with Event Generation and Continuous Wavelet Transform …………………………………………………………………17
2.2.2 Sensitivity Analysis Algorithm 19
2.3 Proposed Protective Strategies 21
2.3.1 DT Relay Setting Models 21
2.3.2 Neural Network Topology-Adjusting Algorithm 24
Chapter 3. POTENTIAL DR CAPACITY ANALYSIS AND ELASTICITY DR MODEL 27
3.1 DR Program Candidate Screening Strategy 28
3.1.1 Potential Segmentation 30
3.1.2 Sensitivity Factors Selection 33
3.2 Consumption Prediction Models of Appliances 34
Chapter 4. OPTIMAL OPERATION AND BIDDING STRATEGY OF VIRTUAL POWER PLANT 37
4.1 VPP Bidding Strategy 37
4.2 Formulation with Uncertainties 45
4.3 Market Structure 48
4.4 The Two-level Game Structure and Methodology 51
Chapter 5. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 55
5.1 Adaptive Protection Strategy 57
5.1.1 Modified IEEE 30-Bus Test System 57
5.1.2 Practical 83-Bus Power System in Taiwan 61
5.2 DR Program Candidate Selection 63
5.2.1 Accuracy of Prediction Model 63
5.2.2 Potencial Capacity Reuslt 65
5.3 Optimal Operation and Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant 68
5.3.1 Illustrative System 68
5.3.2 Taipower System 75
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Prospects 79
6.1 Conclusions 79
6.2 Future Prospects 80
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