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系統識別號 U0026-0108201414222300
論文名稱(中文) 五節芒草與其生質炭燃燒特性之研究
論文名稱(英文) Combustion characteristics of Miscanthus floridulus and its biochar
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 劉家佑
研究生(英文) Chia-Yu Liu
學號 P46011042
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 86頁
口試委員 指導教授-趙怡欽
口試委員-袁曉峰
口試委員-鄭藏勝
口試委員-湯敬民
中文關鍵字 五節芒草  焙燒  生物質  燃燒特性  熱重分析  熱裂解 
英文關鍵字 Miscanthus floridulus  Torrefaction  Bio-fuel  Combustion characteristics  Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)  Pyrolysis 
學科別分類
中文摘要 生質能源,依據生質物轉變成生質燃料的方法分類,能分成熱化學轉換(Thermochemical conversion)及生物化學轉換(Biochemical conversion),在熱化學轉換法中又以“直接燃燒”被視為技術上較為完善、發展風險及成本較低的生質能源技術。而且據統計,地球上每年生物總產量約1400億~1800億千噸,換算成能量相當於目前全球每年總能耗的10倍,因此國外已有許多生質能燃燒發電實例,除了新建的純生質燃料燃燒發電裝置、工業鍋爐外,亦有許多工業鍋爐採用部分混燒方式參入生質燃料燃燒,燃燒或混燒生質燃料,不僅能取代石化燃料,更能減少二氧化碳的排放。
生物質揮發分含量高,而且燃料中大部分碳與氫以低分子的碳氫化合物形態結合再一起,所以較易被引燃。但是生物質在燃燒初期,因揮發速度較快且水分多,所以在低溫或空氣不足情況下,燃燒常帶有黑煙火焰加上生物質揮發份釋出溫度與引燃溫度都低於煤,以及主要組成物相異,使得生物質與煤的基本燃燒特性表現出許多不同,若直接將燃煤鍋爐改成燒生物質或混燒生物質將會出現許多問題。所以設計生物質燃燒設備必須從研究燃料基本特性下手,以及選用與煤燃燒特性相似的燃料混燒。
本研究將使用嘉義農試所種植的五節芒草做為生質原料,因為五節芒具有生長容易、產量巨大、不需施肥、不易受病蟲害侵襲等,且不會與糧食作物產生競爭;本研究除探討五節芒草燃燒特性外,並導入焙燒技術,進行焙燒程度對五節芒草燃燒特性改變與影響之研究。因為,如過能讓五節芒草燃燒特性改善,或是與煤炭相似,那麼便可直接提升此生物質燃料應用層面。
研究藉由氧化實驗及單顆自由燃燒實驗研究燃料化學反應特性與燃燒現象,結果發現,焙燒改變了燃料在各溫度區間下的熱裂解速率與氧化速率,以及燃燒模式,進而改變了燃料在600度下,自燃對流空氣環境中燃燒的型態,結果顯示焙燒雖讓燃料引燃溫度提高,但實際燃燒時焙燒卻能加快燃料被引燃速度,以及提升擴散火焰的燃燒延續時間焙燒後,這主要是因為,焙燒反應改變了五節芒草原始成分以及熱裂解反應級氧化反應特性,芒草炭隨焙燒成度提高,炭化程度跟著提升、揮發份減少,且O/C比值大幅下降,使得芒草炭熱值提高,而且裂解與氧化反應速率也跟著改變。
英文摘要 Torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process carried out in the temperature range of 180 to 300℃ in the absence of oxygen. Torrefaction can increase grindability of fuel, make the resultant biomasseasier to store and increase the heating value.
In this study, Miscanthus floridulus is used as raw material and torrefied by a tube furnace. The elements and proximate analyses have been carried out.Thermo gravimetric analyzer was used to study pyrolysis and oxidization reaction of Miscanthus floridulus and it’s biochars. In addition, their combustion characteristics were investigated by a free-drop furnace which can burn the fuel speciesin a high temperaturefree convection environment.
According to experimental results, torrefaction canenhance the ignition temperature, in real combustion, torrefaction can reduce ignition delay time and prolong flame burn-out time. The primary reason is that different torrefaction temperature can change miscanthus’s pyrolysis and oxidization reaction property and their reaction rate. When increase the torrefaction temperature, will increase carbonization of Miscanthus, decrease volatile componentand O/C ratio and enhance the heating value, therefore, leading to the above combustion and ignition characteristics of the Miscanthus biochar.
論文目次 摘 要 I
英文衍生摘要 III
致謝 XIII
目錄 XV
表目錄 XIX
圖目錄 XX
符號說明 XXIII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 研究動機與文獻回顧 4
2-1 緒論 4
2-2 生物質與生質燃料 5
2-3 五節芒草 7
2-4 生質能源 10
2-5 固態燃料燃燒特性 11
2-5-1熱裂解 13
2-5-2揮發氣體氧化 13
2-5-3引燃與燃燒模式 15
2-5-4焦炭燃燒 16
2-5-5碳粒的燃燒過程 17
2-6生質燃料燃燒發電 18
2-7 焙燒與燃料特性改質 20
2-8 研究動機與目的 24
第三章 實驗設備與實驗方法 26
3-1芒草源與芒草炭製備 26
3-2芒草炭製備 26
3-3元素分析(Elemental analysis,EA) 28
3-4成分比重量測(Proximate analysis) 29
3-5氧化實驗(Oxidization analysis experiment) 31
3-5-1熱重分析儀 31
3-5-2燃燒特性參數訂定 32
3-5-3生物質燃燒模式分析 35
3-6熱卡計 36
3-7 反應動力學分析 37
3-8 單顆自由燃燒實驗 40
第四章 結果與討論 44
4-1質量與能量產出率分析 44
4-2元素暨成分比重分析 46
4-3 氧化實驗 47
4-3-1熱裂解反應 47
4-3-2氧化反應 49
4-3-3燃燒特性 51
4-3-4燃燒模式 52
4-4氧化反應動力學分析 52
4-5 自由燃燒 53
4-5-1引燃延遲時間 54
4-5-2揮發氣體火焰 54
4-5-3燃燒持續時間與轉化情形 56
第五章 結論 58
參考資料 61
表格 65
圖形 69
自 述 86
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