||Design and Verification of the Control Procedure of Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem for Nanosatellite
||Department of Electrical Engineering
This thesis depict the design and verification of the control procedure for PHOENIX nanosatellite. For QB50 mission, the main objective of PHOENIX is to conduct the research with respect to the lower atmosphere and study the atmospheric re-entry process associated with aerothermodynamics phenomena. According to this objective, the control procedure for three-axis stabilization is necessary that software can aid PHOENIX to reorient to the desired attitude. For confirming designed control procedure, the investigation of simulation models including physical models, estimators, and controllers is essential in order to build a simulation environment based on MATLAB/Simulink. In this thesis, the simulation interface based on MATLAB/Simulink is intuitive and flexible to develop control program and display graphical results.
Typically, the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) are divided two parts including attitude determination to estimate the current attitude, and attitude control to properly adjust the attitude. Regarding the attitude determination, Rate Kalman Filter (RKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) with sun sensor, nadir sensor, magnetometer, and rate sensor will be utilized to estimate the satellite’s attitude and angular velocity. For attitude control, magnetic control and single axis wheel control are considered within the control procedure due to the limitation of equipped actuators. Rate control, B-dot control, and cross product control all belong to magnetic control, and will be implemented for angular rates control. With single axis wheel control, the bias momentum method will be used to complete three-axis stabilization control. The control procedure employs all of above filters and control laws to stabilize the satellite, and they are verified by the simulation built in this thesis.
List of Tables XI
List of Figures XII
List of Abbreviations XVI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Literature Review 1
1.3 Attitude Determination and Control System 4
1.3.1 Attitude Determination and Control 4
1.3.2 Development Tool 5
1.4 Organization 8
Chapter 2 PHOENIX Nanosatellite 9
2.1 Objective of QB50 Mission 9
2.2 PHOENIX Nanosatellite Configuration 11
2.3 ADCS Requirement and Hardware 15
Chapter 3 Satellite and Environment Model 20
3.1 Mathematical Definitions of the Attitude 20
3.1.1 Earth Centered Inertial Frame (ECI) 21
3.1.2 Earth Centered Earth Fixed Frame (ECEF) 21
3.1.3 Orbit Frame 22
3.1.4 Body Frame 23
3.1.5 Coordinate Transformation 24
3.2 Attitude Representation 27
3.2.1 Euler Angles 27
3.2.2 Quaternion 29
3.3 Equation of Motions 30
3.3.1 Dynamic Equations 31
3.3.2 Kinematic Equations 32
3.4 Orbit Propagator 33
3.4.1 Keplerian Orbits 33
3.4.2 Position and Velocity as a Function of Time 35
3.4.3 Orbit Perturbations 36
3.5 Space Environment 37
3.5.1 Magnetic Field Model (IGRF) 38
3.5.2 Earth’s Atmosphere Model 43
3.5.3 Sun/Eclipse Position Model 44
3.6 Disturbance Torques 48
3.6.1 Gravity Gradient Torque 48
3.6.2 Aerodynamic Torque 49
3.6.3 Magnetic Disturbance 50
3.7 Sensor and Actuator Models 50
3.7.1 Sun Sensor 51
3.7.2 Nadir Sensor 52
3.7.3 Magnetometer 53
3.7.4 Rate MEMS Sensor 54
3.7.5 Magnetorquer Rods 56
3.7.6 Y-axis Momentum Wheel 56
Chapter 4 ADC Software Design of PHOENIX 59
4.1 Attitude Determination 59
4.1.1 Rate Kalman Filter Based on Magnetometer 60
4.1.2 Extended Kalman Filter 63
4.1.3 Unscented Kalman Filter 70
4.2 Attitude Control 77
4.2.1 B-dot Control Law 78
4.2.2 Rate Control Law 78
4.2.3 Cross Product and Unloading Control Law 79
4.2.4 Pitch Control Law 81
4.3 Control Procedure of PHOENIX ADC Software 82
4.3.1 Attitude Determination and Control Mode 82
4.3.2 Initial Acquisition Mode 83
4.3.3 Attitude Maneuver and Three-axis Stabilization Mode 84
4.3.4 ADCS State Procedure 85
Chapter 5 Software Simulation of ADCS 88
5.1 System Architecture 89
5.2 Results of Attitude Control 92
5.2.1 Overview 92
5.2.2 Without Any Control 94
5.2.3 Attitude Acquisition after Deployment 101
5.2.4 Attitude Control in the End of the Mission 112
5.2.5 Summary 123
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 125
6.1 Results Discussion 125
6.2 Future Research 125
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