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系統識別號 U0026-0108201317303100
論文名稱(中文) 非接觸式醫院電梯控制模式與介面之設計與使用性評估
論文名稱(英文) Design and Evaluation of Non-Contact Elevator Control Mode and User Interface
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 徐德芬
研究生(英文) De-Fen Shiu
學號 P36004043
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 111頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉說芳
口試委員-陸定邦
口試委員-陳連福
中文關鍵字 電梯操作  介面設計  影像辨識  體感操作  使用性 
英文關鍵字 elevator operation  interface design  video recognition  kinesthetic operation  usability 
學科別分類
中文摘要 公共衛生意識提升、流行性疾病盛行使得電梯衛生安全被高度重視,而電梯使用者多且雜,故被視為接觸傳染的途徑之一,本研究呼應科技研究發展之趨勢,欲運用影像辨識技術,以開發一套可藉身體姿態的改變進而操作電梯的非接觸式電梯操作系統,改進現有電梯使用問題,適當整合出人、資訊與空間之創新電梯控制模式與介面,提供民眾在公共場所預防接觸性傳染疾病之控制模式,以減少電梯衛生安全問題,降低疾病傳染之風險。
本研究以此為基礎,觀察分析醫院電梯介面與操作行為,找出應具備之介面資訊並區分資訊類別,再提出改進方案並成為非接觸式電梯操作模式與介面之設計規劃原則,最後利用影像辨識系統結合FLASH模擬畫面進行實驗測試,藉由計時任務與配合使用性問卷調查,了解使用者對非接觸式電梯操作模式與介面之接受度與操作效益。
經上述流程,實驗分析結果顯示本研究所規劃設計之非接觸式操作模式與介面對於使用者而言為一更安心操作的系統,且具直覺性,可以快速學習並自行操作成功,受測者接受度高且樂於使用此系統;電梯操作介面使用電子螢幕呈現,故功能資訊可利用顏色、形狀以及大小等外觀區分,不僅能快速檢索,亦可提升介面的記憶性。且在操作時,按鍵圖示會依操作階段變色,此視覺回饋可提示使用者操作的完成度(選擇轉變至選取)。此外介面上可增添其他資訊,如增加生活資訊、活動宣傳和廣告,以增加電梯的附加價值。
最後本研究建議後續研究發展應該使用實體電梯與嵌入式平台測試,並加入其他辨識技術,希望目標能使非接觸式操作模式之使用效能趨近於接觸式操控的效能。
英文摘要 As general public becomes more aware of sanitation in public area and spread of diseases along routes of pathogen, sanitation in elevators are of high considerations. Users of public elevators come in large quantities and varieties, and elevators have become one of the main routes of pathogens. This study aims to echo with the advancement of technology by adapting video recognition technology to develop a non-contact elevator operation system, by which users could operate by change of bodily gestures. This design may solve current usage problems, by integrating human, information, and space aspects into the control mode and interfaces, providing the public a method of control which may aid in prevention of disease spreading. The solution should reduce sanitation issues in elevators and hence reduce the risk of disease spreading.
The idea serves as fundaments of this study. By observing and analyzing operational interfaces and behaviors in current hospital elevators, specification for the new interface was made. Then discuss and generate principles for designing and planning of non-contact elevator control mode and interface. Video images combined with FLAS simulation were created for experimental tasks, which will be timed and interviewed about. Surveys would be used with correlations to the experimental tasks, in order to understand how users perceive acceptability and efficiency of designed interface.
Through the mentioned stages, results of study showed that the planning and design of non-contact elevator control mode and user interfaces was more advantageous, intuitive, and learnable. The control interface of elevator was displayed by electronic panels, using colors, shapes, and sizes to demonstrate operational information, promoting faster search and higher learnability. The interface may be added other information, such as lifestyle information, activity promotion and visual feedback.
Lastly, this study suggests that a later design be implemented into actual software, embedded into a platform. Other types of technology may be incorporated in the hope that the efficiency of non-contact operation mode be close or better than that of the traditional touch-control mode.
論文目次 Table of Content
APPROVAL PAGE i
摘要 ii
ABSTRCT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
Table of Content v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1. 1 Background and Motivation of Research 1
1.2 Scope and Limitation 3
1.3 Purpose of Study 4
1.4 Research Outline 5
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Investigations in Current Elevator Operations 7
2.1.1 Current Types of Elevators and Use 7
2.1.2 Elevator Control Devices 8
2.1.3 Current Modes of Control 9
2.2 Investigation of Cognitive Behavior 11
2.2.1 Cognitive Behaviors of Human 12
2.2.2 Mental Models 13
2.2.3 Information Processes in Man-Machine Interfaces 13
2.3 Universal Design 14
2.3.1 Definition of Universal Design 14
2.3.2 The Seven Principles in Universal Design 15
2.4 Investigations in Kinesthetic Control and Interfaces 18
2.4.1 Development of Current Consumer Electronics 18
2.4.2 Investigations into Current Kinesthetic Control Modes 18
2.4.3 Principle of UI Design 21
2.4.4 Figure and Symbols in Design Principles 22
2.5 Method of Assessment 24
2.5.1 Definition of Usability 24
2.5.2 Evaluation of Usability 24
2.5.3 Evaluation of Interface Symbols 26
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Outline of Research Process 27
3.2 Analysis of Current Usage 30
3.2.1 Observation and Analysis of Control Behaviors in Current Hospital Elevators 30
3.2.2 Information regarding Hospital Elevator Control Interface 38
3.2.3 Summary 42
3.3 Heuristic Evaluation 43
3.4 Experimental Design and Planning 46
3.4.1 Experimental Procedures 46
3.4.2 Limitation of Experiment 49
3.4.3 Participants of Experiment and Test Environment 49
3.4.4 Methods of Evaluation 51
Chapter 4 SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND UI DESIGN 54
4.1 Conceptual Construction of System 54
4.1.1 System Requirements 55
4.2 Non-Contact Elevator Control Mode and UI Design 56
4.2.1 System Control UI Design 56
4.2.2 Planning of System Control Mode 59
4.2.3 Layout of Spaces 61
4.3 Video Recognition System 64
Chapter 5 REULTS AND ANALYSIS 66
5.1 Analysis of Test Takers’ Basic Information and Surveys 66
5.2 Timed Tasks Result and Analysis 67
5.3 Analysis of Interface Using (Nielsen’s) Attributes of Usability 68
5.4 Analysis using System Usability Scale 73
5.5 Analysis using User Perception Scale 75
5.6 Analysis using Non-Contact Elevator Evaluation Scale 83
Chapter 6 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 87
6.1 Result of Research 87
6.2 Suggestion and Further Development 90
REFERENCES 92
Appendix 1:SCENARIOS OF ELEVATOR OPERATIONS IN HOSPITAL 97
Appendix 2: USABILITY EVALUATION SURVEY FOR NON-CONTACT ELEVATOR CONTROL MODE 97
Appendix 3 COMPLETE PROCEDURE OF NON-CONTACT ELEVATOR OPERATIONS 107


List of Tables
Table 2-1 Types of Elevators 7
Table 2-2 Comparisons of Current Modes of Control in Elevators 10
Table 2-3 Evaluation of Usability 25
Table 3-1 Analysis of Control Behavior in Hospital Elevators 34
Table 3-2 Analysis of Elevator Interfaces 39
Table 3-3 Scenario and Content of Tasks in Experiment 51
Table 5-1 Descriptive Statistics of Experimental Task One (unit: second) 67
Table 5-2 Descriptive Statics of Experimental Task Two (unit: second) 67
Table 5-3 Reliability Statistics of Interface Attributes of Usability Scale 68
Table 5-4 Descriptive Statistics of Interface Attributes of Usability Scale 69
Table 5-5 Independent Samples Test of Interface Attributes of Usability Scale 70
Table 5-6 Reliability Statistics of System Usability Scale 74
Table 5-7 Descriptive Statistics of System Usability Scale 74
Table 5-8 Frequency Table of System Usability Scale 75
Table 5-9 Reliability Statistics of User Subjective Perception Scale 76
Table 5-10 Descriptive Statistics of User Subjective Perception Scale 77
Table 5-11 Independent Samples Test of User Subjective Perception Scale 78
Table 5-12 Reliability Statistics of Non-contact Elevator Evaluation Scale 84
Table 5-13 Descriptive Statistics of Non-contact Elevator Evaluation Scale 84



List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Research Outline. 6
Figure 2-1 Passenger elevator (left) versus hospital elevator (right). 8
Figure 2-2 Elevator control panel. 9
Figure 2-3 Information Processing Model (Robert, 1992) 12
Figure 2-4 Mental models (Norman, 2003) 13
Figure 2-5 Shannon communication model transformed into a man-machine UI communication model (Yang, 2000). 14
Figure 2-6 xBox 360 Kinect 19
Figure 2-7 Smart TV 19
Figure 2-8 Non-contact touch-controlled search system 19
Figure 2-9 UI Design Principles (modified from Norman, 2003). 21
Figure 3-1 Flow of research process. 29
Figure 3-2 Chart of scenarios in operating elevators in hospital 32
Figure 3-3 Flow chart of experimental procedures. 48
Figure 3-4 Layout of testing environment 50
Figure 3-5 Set up of test environment 50
Figure 4-1 Structure of non-contact elevator control system 54
Figure 4-2 System functions 56
Figure 4-3 UI outer control panel. 57
Figure 4-4 UI of inner control panel. 58
Figure 4-5 Floor selection menus. 59
Figure 4-6 Initiation of System 60
Figure 4-7 The outer control panel 62
Figure 4-8 Layout of interior spaces 62
Figure 4-9 Outer electronic panel 63
Figure 4-10 Inner electronic panel 63
Figure 4-11 Inner control panel – vertical style 63
Figure 4-12 Process of video recognition 64
Figure 4-13 Screenshot from visual studio 65

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【Reports】
33. Contagious Protection Measure。Centers for Disease Control, R.O.C.。
34. website:http://www.cdc.gov.tw/public/Attachment/942013451171.pdf
35. Elevator-BAIDU。website: baike.baidu.com/view/51767.htm
36. Elevator etiquette against the H1N1。Bureau of Health Promotion,Department of health, Taiwan, R.O.C. health 99 website。website:http://health99.doh.gov.tw/EducZone/edu_detail.aspx?CatId=11789&Type=CLICKNUM,2009
37. Engadget:Leap Motion gesture control technology hands-on。
38. website:http://chinese.engadget.com/2012/05/27/leap-motion-gesture-control-technology-hands-on/
39. Health stations: Hospital elevator buttons are dirty (2009)。Reporter: Ning, Wei-Yu。
40. website:http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article//20090522/31648904
41. Human-computer interaction。National Science Council。
42. website: http://web1.nsc.gov.tw/ct.aspx?xItem=7933&ctNode=439&mp=1#
43. Introduction for Samsung Smart TV ES7000。
44. website: http://tv.pconline.com.cn/lcd/reviews/1204/2770319_2.html
45. The number of bacteria on elevator buttons is 40 times than toilet seat (2010)。
46. website:http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/10/9/28/n3038710.htm
47. Video: non-contact inquiry system on gesture control。
48. website: http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDQ4ODA1OTk2.html
【Patents】
49. Device for Voice Controlling and Calling Elevator。
50. website:http://twpat-simple.tipo.gov.tw/tipotwoc/tipotwkm?00B70BCC001B0E0100000000000100A000000001000000000^
51. Elevator button with non-touch control。
52. website:http://www.qqcyg.com/news_view.asp?id=1713
53. Elevator control panel structure。
54. website:http://twpat-simple.tipo.gov.tw/tipotwoc/tipotwkm?00B70BCC00110B0100000000000700A000000001000000000^
55. Mitsubishi Electric develops Elevator with Voice Recognition and Wheelchair user detection.。
56. website:http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/japan.xinhuanet.com/yzyd/20120515/c_111956492.htm
57. Non-contact sensor switch。
58. website:http://twpat5.tipo.gov.tw/tipotwoc/tipotwkm?000749A60003020100000000000200A000000001000000000^
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