||以M-R環境理論探討社論式廣告特性對論壇使用者反應之影響 : 以物質主義為干擾因子
||The Influence of Advertorial Attributions on Forum User Responses via M-R Theory: Materialism as Moderator
||Department of Business Administration
PAD emotional model
online advertisement attributes
In business activities today, online advertisements act as an important channel in interacting with forum user and communicating product information. Since there is lack of past literature discussing the relationship between online advertisement attributes and users, this research focuses on the forums, especially advertorials, with the M-R theory, using advertorial attributes such of informativeness, credibility, irritation and entertainment as online environmental stimulus, to study forum user’s reaction to advertorials, and understand their emotional states, including control, arousal and pleasure. In addition, materialism will be manipulated as a moderating variable to further discuss its moderating effect between advertorial attributes and forum users control. This study focuses on respondents who have forum browsing experience and SEM was used to analysis the 421 valid questionnaires collected. Results indicate the causal relationship among control, arousal and pleasure. Advertorial attributes will influence forum user’s emotional states via control, and emotional states will directly affect the information acceptance and purchase intention. Partial moderating effect of materialism was present between advertorial attributes and control, among which credibility and pleasure were significant. As this study discovered, online forum user indeed care about advertorial attributes, it suggested that when editorial writers are publishing advertorials, they should provide high credibility information and detailed descriptions regarding product characteristics, combined with interspersed entertaining images and videos to reduce lengthy, confusing and tedious layout in order to minimize negative impact of users’ emotions. In addition, if writers can increase readers’ acceptance of contents and positive emotions by providing true detailed information, the promotion effect of advertorials can be significantly enhanced.
Table of Content V
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Research Objectives 7
1.3 Research Process 8
CHAPTER TWO 10
LITERATURE REVIEW & HYPOTHESE DEVELOPMENT 10
2.1 Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Framework and Mehrabian-Russell (M-R) Environmental Psychology Model 11
2.1.1 Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Framework 11
2.1.2 Mehrabian-Russell (M-R) Environmental Psychology Model 12
2.2 Attributes of Advertorial 14
2.2.1 Perceived Informativeness 15
2.2.2 Perceived Credibility 17
2.2.3 Perceived Irritation 18
2.2.4 Perceived Entertainment 19
2.3 Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance (PAD) Emotional Model 20
2.3.1 Pleasure 21
2.3.2 Arousal 22
2.3.3 Dominance 23
2.4 Materialism 25
2.5 User Acceptance 26
2.6 Intention of Purchase 27
2.7 Conceptual Model and Hypothesis Development 28
2.7.1 Perceived Informativeness and Control 30
2.7.2 Perceived Credibility and Control 31
2.7.3 Perceived Irritation and Control 32
2.7.4 Perceived Entertainment and Control 33
2.7.5 The Moderating Effect 35
2.7.6 Control and Energetic Arousal 36
2.7.7 Control and Tense Arousal 38
2.7.8 Control and Pleasure 39
2.7.9 Energetic Arousal and Pleasure 40
2.7.10 Tense Arousal and Pleasure 41
2.7.11 Pleasure and User Acceptance 42
2.7.12 Pleasure and Intention of Purchase 43
2.7.13 User Acceptance and Intention of Purchase 44
CHAPTER THREE 45
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY 45
3.1. Definition of Construct and Hypotheses 45
3.1.1 Definition of Construct 45
3.1.2 Summary of Hypotheses 47
3.2 Measurement Development and Questionnaire Design 49
3.3 Pilot Test Analysis 57
3.4 Data Analysis Procedure 60
3.4.1 Demographic Analysis 60
3.4.2 Reliability Analysis and Validity Analysis 61
3.4.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 61
3.4.4 Structural Equation Model 61
CHAPTER FOUR 63
DATA ANALYSIS & RESULT 63
4.1 Data Collection and Demographic Analysis 63
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 65
4.3 Measurement Model Analysis 69
4.3.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) 69
4.3.2 Reliability Analysis and Convergent Validity 73
4.3.3 Discriminant Validity Analysis 74
4.4 Structural Equation Models – Hypotheses Test 77
4.4.1 Perceived Informativeness, Credibility, Irritation, Entertainment and Control 77
4.4.2 Control, Energetic Arousal, Tense Arousal and Pleasure 78
4.4.3 Energetic Arousal, Tense Arousal and Pleasure 79
4.4.4 Pleasure and User acceptance 80
4.4.5 Pleasure and Intention of Purchase 81
4.4.6 User Acceptance and Intention of Purchase 81
4.5 Moderating Effects 84
4.5.1 Moderating Effect on Perceived Informativeness and Control 85
4.5.2 Moderating Effect on Perceived Credibility and Control 85
4.5.3 Moderating Effect on Perceived irritation and Control 85
4.5.4 Moderating Effect on Perceived Entertainment and Control 86
CHAPTER FIVE 88
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 88
5.1 Discussion 88
5.1.1 Perceived Informativeness, Credibility, Irritation, Entertainment and Control (H1~H4) 88
5.1.2 Moderating Effect 92
5.1.3 Control, Energetic Arousal, Tense Arousal and Pleasure (H6~H8) 96
5.1.4 Energetic Arousal, Tense Arousal and Pleasure (H9 & H10) 98
5.1.5 Pleasure, User Acceptance and Intention of Purchase (H11~H13) 100
5.2 Implication 103
5.2.1 Theoretical Implication 103
5.2.2 Managerial Implication 106
5.3 Limitation and Directions for Future Research 108
APPENDIX 1 117
APPENDIX 2 118
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