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系統識別號 U0026-0107201115515000
論文名稱(中文) 灌溉渠道人工棲所對魚類群落之生態效應
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Artificial Shelters to Fish Assemblage in an Irrigation Channel
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳虹琪
研究生(英文) Hung-Chi Chen
學號 N86981260
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 口試委員-邱郁文
口試委員-莊明德
指導教授-孫建平
中文關鍵字 灌溉渠道  魚類群落  生態工程  人工棲所 
英文關鍵字 Irrigation Channel  Fish Community  Eco-engineering  Shelter/Cover 
學科別分類
中文摘要 農業地區的生態環境近年來在國內外皆被廣泛的探討與研究,不管是灌溉排水渠道中的水生生態,或是其周邊土地利用等對農業區生態環境的影響,都因現今生態環境保育觀念的提升獲得大家重視,而提供農田水生生態環境的渠道設施,也因此在工程施作上進行了許多的改良。
  人工棲所(artificial shelter)這種以河道內避難棲所(instream shelter/cover)為概念的工法已在國外行之有年,而台灣的灌排系統中最近也有施行這種工法;位於臺南市新化區新化高中旁之渠道段,於2010年6月完工的嘉南大圳南幹支線生態工程,其在渠道岸壁設置植栽型留水槽所使用的工法與人工棲所的概念相似,本研究利用在當地於供灌期與停灌期時分別進行魚類群落的調查,藉以探討人工棲所對於魚類群落之生態效應。本文利用統計方法單因子變異數分析與獨立樣本T檢定進行分析,探討研究區上游與下游兩個台灣最常使用的傳統混凝土內面工渠道-梯形與U形渠之無設置人工棲所區域,與渠道改善工程段設置人工棲所的環境,在供灌期與停灌期這種人為操作水量下魚類群落之變動。
  本研究之結果顯示,在供灌期與停灌期兩個時段中,人工棲所對於魚類群落之影響並不相同,停灌期魚類群落會大量棲息於設置人工棲所的測站,而供灌期時魚類群落則是散佈於各個測站,人工棲所在此時對魚類群落之效應較不明顯;另外本研究也發現,魚類群落對於棲息的人工棲所具有季節上的差異,在冬季停灌時,牠們會大量棲息於視覺隔離以及遮蔽機能較佳的人工棲所,而夏季供灌時,則是具有大面積遮蔽機能的人工棲所較受魚類偏好。
英文摘要 The ecological concept has been widely accepted and applied into human developments. In agricultural ecosystems, the ecological importance of irrigation channels and ditches as aquatic ecosystem also has been reconsidered and materialized in channel improvement.
The idea of the in-stream shelter/cover technique has been used as a new method in many countries. Recently, this eco-construction has also been installed in the irrigation system of Taiwan. In Xinhua, Tainan City, an eco-engineering project for southern branch of Chia Nan Irrigation Channel was completed in June 2010. Engineers designed and installed the fish tanks on the side of the channel. The concept of designing the fish tanks is similar to the shelter technique. In order to know the effects of artificial shelters to fish community, this study uses the statistical analysis methods which are one-way ANOVA and t-test to examine the dynamic differences in fish community among different types of sampling channels(U-shaped, trapezoid-shaped, with and without shelters), and during the different irrigation periods. We also examine the effect of flow variation on fish community during irrigation and non-irrigation periods. The results indicate that fish species spread through all sampling sites during irrigation period but concentrated at sheltered sites during non-irrigation period, and moreover, artificial shelters provide significant positive effects on fish density, fish species diversity, and the native species during non-irrigation period. Fish species also use shelters differently according to flow variation. Side-tanks are favored in winter non-irrigation period while bottom-tank is favored in summer irrigation period.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
謝誌 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1台灣的農田圳路與生態 4
2.2渠道化工程對魚類棲地之影響 6
2.3河道內避難棲所(Shelter/Cover) 10
第三章 研究方法 18
3.1採樣地點與工程概述 18
3.1.1現地資料 23
3.2採樣方式 25
3.2.1魚類採樣方法 26
3.2.2物理棲地因子之人工棲所分類 30
3.3魚類數據之處理及因子 32
3.3.1辛普森多樣性指數(Simpson’s diversity index) 33
3.4統計方法 34
3.4.1單因子變異數分析(One-way ANOVA) 34
3.4.2獨立樣本T檢定 38
3.4.3皮爾森相關係數分析 40
第四章 結果與討論 42
4.1採樣結果 42
4.1.1魚類採樣結果 42
4.1.2水質及物理棲地因子調查結果 45
4.2魚類利用棲地及與水質、物理環境因子之關係 48
4.2.1辛普森多樣性指數(Simpson’s diversity index) 48
4.2.2魚類於各棲地環境之差異分析結果 51
4.2.3傳統U形渠道與梯形渠道之魚類差異檢驗 66
第五章 結論與建議 68
5.1結論 68
5.2建議 70
第六章 參考文獻 72
附錄1 單因子變異數分析 81
附錄2 獨立樣本T檢定 89
附錄3 電魚許可公文 97
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