進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-0107201017581000
論文名稱(中文) 網站社會臨場感與價格差異對知覺價格公平之研究
論文名稱(英文) The Impact of Website Social Presence and Price Level on Perceptions of Price Fairness
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 黃珮蓉
研究生(英文) Pei-Jung Huang
學號 R4696103
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 121頁
口試委員 指導教授-張心馨
口試委員-劉佳玲
口試委員-蔡惠婷
口試委員-張心馨
中文關鍵字 價格公平  網站社會臨場感  情感  滿意度  慣性行為  自我保護  報復行為 
英文關鍵字 Price Fairness  Website Social Presence  Price Level  Emotion  Satisfaction  Inertia  Self-protection  Revenge 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於網路購物具有便利及價格優惠之特性,而滿足了現今快速步調之消費者需求。但是,如果廠商同時擁有實體與虛擬的通路,就會因通路差異而制訂不同價格策略,導致消費者購買相同產品時,必須付出不同價格購買商品,進而影響消費者價格公平之認知。因此,本研究首先探討因實體與虛擬通路所形成的價格差異幅度而造成消費者對知覺價格公平的影響,接著探討知覺價格公平對情感及滿意度之影響,進而影響消費者的慣性(inertia)、自我保護(self-protection)、及報復(revenge)等三種行為,最後驗證購物網站的社會臨場感 (website social presence) 設計對消費者知覺價格公平(price fairness)、情感(emotion)及滿意度(satisfaction)之影響。本研究進行了6個組間因子的實驗設計來模擬消費情境,透過網路問卷蒐集了431份有效樣本,以變異數分析和迴歸分析驗證假設。資料分析結果發現:(1)當消費者面對價格差距高的情況時,會產生較高的知覺價格不公平;(2)知覺價格不公平會正向影響負面情緒及滿意度;(3)負面情緒會正向影響滿意度;(4)負面情緒及滿意度會正向影響自我保護及報復二種行為,而負向影響消費者的慣性行為;(5)購物網站之社會臨場感設計可有效改善消費者所知覺到的情緒及滿意度。最後,本研究建議管理者在面對消費者知覺價格不公平時,可增加購物網站之社會臨場感設計,以改善消費者負面之情感及滿意度。
英文摘要 Customers usually require convenience and reasonable prices when they are shopping online. Charging customers who buy the same product differently based on the multi-channel (such as online store and offline store) pricing strategy affects their perception of price fairness. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate how the price level influences consumers’ cognitive (perceptions of price fairness), affection (emotion and satisfaction), and behavioral reactions (inertia, self-protection, revenge) in a situation in which the buyer is charged a higher price in the online store than in the physical store. In addition, this study also explores how website social presence (elements of human warmth and sociability) positively impacts the effects of differential pricing on consumer perceptions of price fairness, emotion, and satisfaction. In this study, a six factor between-subject experiment was conducted to simulate the several situations. ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze 431 samples. An empirical study was undertaken to investigate the impact of high levels of price on perceptions of price unfairness. Second, price fairness positively influenced both emotion and satisfaction. Third, customer emotion had a positive influence on satisfaction. Fourth, emotion had a negative effect on inertia and positive effect on self-protection and revenge, while satisfaction affected behavioral response. Fifth, the website social presence positively influenced both emotion and satisfaction. Finally, this study suggests that managers could improve website social presence when consumers perceive price unfairness.
論文目次 Contents
Abstract................................................i
摘 要...................................................ii
誌 謝...................................................iii
Contents ...............................................iv
List of Tables..........................................vii
List of Figures........................................viii
Chapter 1 Introduction..................................1
Chapter 2 Literature Review and Hypotheses..............5
2.1. Conceptual Framework- SOR Model....................5
2.2 Stimulus............................................7
2.2.1 Price Tactic......................................8
2.2.2 Price Level.......................................11
2.3 Organism..........................................12
2.3.1 Price Fairness....................................13
2.3.2 Emotion...........................................16
2.3.3 Satisfaction......................................19
2.4 Response............................................21
2.4.1 Inertia...........................................23
2.4.2 Self-protection...................................24
2.4.3 Revenge...........................................26
2.5 Website Social Presence.............................28
2.6 Conceptual Framework................................30
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology...............34
3.1 Research Design.....................................34
3.2 Stimulus Development................................35
3.3.1 Experimental Scenarios............................36
3.3.2 Experimental Websites.............................38
3.3.3 Product Selection.................................38
3.4 Dependent Variable..................................39
3.5 Questionnaire Design................................40
3.6 Pilot Test..........................................42
3.7 Data Analysis Procedure.............................45
3.7.1 Descriptive Static Analysis.......................45
3.7.2 Factor Analysis...................................46
3.7.3 Reliability Analysis..............................46
3.7.4 Analysis of variance (ANOVA)......................47
3.7.5 Multiple regression analysis......................47
3.7.6 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)................47
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion........................49
4.1 Descriptive Analysis................................49
4.1.1 Date Collection...................................49
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents....................49
4.1.3 Descriptive Analysis of Dependent Variables.......52
4.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Construct Validity and Reliability.............................................56
4.2.1 Price Fairness....................................59
4.2.2 Emotion...........................................59
4.2.3 Satisfaction......................................60
4.2.4 Inertia...........................................60
4.2.5 Self-protection...................................60
4.2.6 Revenge...........................................61
4.3 Manipulation Check of the Main study................61
4.4 Interrelationships among Price Fairness, Emotion, Satisfaction, Inertia, Self-protection and Revenge......63
4.4.1 The Effects of Price Fairness and Emotion.........63
4.4.2 The Effects of Price Fairness and Emotion on Satisfaction............................................64
4.4.3 The Effects of Emotion and Satisfaction on Inertia ................................................64
4.4.4 The Effects of Emotion and Satisfaction on Self-Protection..............................................65
4.4.5 The Effects of Emotion and Satisfaction on Revenge ................................................65
4.5 Results of Dependent Variables under Different Treatments..............................................67
4.5.1 The Interrelationships Among Variance Levels of Different Price and Website Social Presence and Price Fairness................................................68
4.5.2 The Interrelationships Among Variance Levels of Different Price, Website Social Presence, and Emotion...69
4.5.3 The Interrelationships Among Variance Levels of Different Price, Website Social Presence, and Satisfaction ................................................70
4.6 ANOVA Analysis......................................75
4.6.1 t-test Analysis of the Effect of Gender on Each Variable................................................75
4.6.2 ANOVA Analysis of the Effects of Respondents’ Characteristics on Each Variable........................76
4.7 Results of Hypotheses Testing.......................84
4.8 Additional Analysis.................................86
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Suggestion.....................89
5.1 Summary of Findings.................................89
5.2 Theoretical and Managerial Implications.............92
5.2.1 Theoretical Implications..........................92
5.2.2 Managerial Implications...........................94
5.3 Research Limitations and Future Research............95
References..............................................98
Appendix A Three level of social presence of the website ...............................................112
Appendix B Questionnaire- Chinese version..............115
Appendix C Measurement model of all constructs.........121

List of Tables
Table 2-1. Research Hypotheses and Correlation of Variables .............................................32
Table 3-1. The Factorial Design ..................34
Table 3-2. Variance Levels of Perceived Price Fairness Situations ...................................36
Table 3-3. Social Presence Manipulations of the Experimental Websites..................................36
Table 3-4. Definitions and Supporting Reference of Each Construct ........................................40
Table 3-5. Price Manipulation Check ..............42
Table 3-6. Website Social Presence Manipulation Check .................................................43
Table 3-7. Results of the Pilot Test (N=54).......44
Table 4-1. Respondent Characteristics (N=431).....49
Table 4-2. Descriptive Analysis, Factor Analysis and Reliability Test of Each Construct.....................52
Table 4-3. The Goodness of Measurement Model Fit..55
Table 4-4. Discriminate Validity of Each Construct..58
Table 4-5. Manipulation Check of the Variance Level of the Different Prices ..............................62
Table 4-6. Manipulation Check of Website Social Presence ..............................................62
Table 4-7. The Results of The Linear Regression ...66
Table 4-8. ANOVA Results on Main Effects..........72
Table 4-9. Main Effect and Interactive Effect on Emotion, Satisfaction...................................72
Table 4-10. ANOVA Results on Main ..................74
Table 4-11. ANOVA Analysis of the Effect of Gender on Each Variable ..........................................76
Table 4-12. ANOVA Analysis of the Effect of Age on Each Variable...........................................77
Table 4-13. ANOVA Analysis of the Effect of Disposable Income on Each Variable.................................78
Table 4-14. ANOVA Analysis of the Effect of Time Using the Internet on Each Variable...........................79
Table 4-15. ANOVA Analysis of the Effect of Frequency Buying on Each Variable ................................81
Table 4-16. ANOVA Analysis of the Average Price of the Product Buys More Often on the Online Store on Each Variable ...............................................83
Table 4-17. The ANOVA Hypotheses Testing Results ...86

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Conceptual Framework....................32
Figure 4-1. The Interrelationship between the Variance Levels of Different Price and Website Social Presence...69
Figure 4-2. The Interrelationships between Emotion and Website Social Presence..................................70
Figure 4-3. The Interrelationship between Satisfaction and the Website Social Presence.........................71
Figure 4-4. Interrelationships among Price Fairness, Emotion, Satisfaction, Inertia, Self-Protection and Revenge..................................................85
Figure 4-5. Interrelationships among Price Fairness, Emotion, Satisfaction, Inertia,
Self-Protection and Revenge on Male......................88
Figure 4-6. Interrelationships among Price Fairness, Emotion, Satisfaction, Inertia,
Self-Protection and Revenge on Female....................88
參考文獻 References
Aaker, D. A. (2001). Strategic market management. New York: John Wiley Inc.
Adams, J. S. (1965). Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Athanassopoulos, A. D. (2000). Customer satisfaction cues to support market segmentation and explain switching behavior. Journal of Business Research, 47(3), 191–207.
Anderson, E. W. (1998). Customer satisfaction and word of mouth. Journal of Service Research, 1(1) 5–17.
Andreas, H., Lan, X., Kent, B. M. & Frank, H. (2007). The influence of price fairness on customer satisfaction: an empirical test in the context of automobile purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(1), 49–58.
Anand, K.S., & Aron, R. (2003). Group buying on the web: A comparison of price-discovery mechanisms. Management Science, 49(11), 1546–1562.
Ancarani, F., & Shankar, V. (2004). Price levels and price dispersion within and across multiple retailer types: Further evidence and extension. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(2), 176–187.
Arkes, H. R., Kung, Y. H., & Hutzel, L. (2002). Regret, valuation, and inaction inertia. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 83(2), 371–385.
Austin, W., McGinn, N., & Susmilch, C. (1980). Internal standards revisited: Effects of social comparisons and expectancies on judgments of fairness and satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16(5), 426–441.
Babin, B. J., Hardesty, D. M., & Suter, T. A. (2003). Color and shopping intentions: The intervening effect of price fairness and perceived affect. Journal of Business Research, 56(7), 541– 551.
Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184–206.
Baker, J. (1986). The role of environment in marketing services: The consumer perspective. The services marketing challenge: Integrated for competitive advantage. Chicago: American Marketing Association.
Baker, J., Grewal, D., & Voss, G. B. (2002). The influence of multiple store environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions. Journal of Marketing, 66(2), 120–141.
Batra, R. (1986). Affective advertising: role, processes, and measurement. In R. A. Peterson, W. D. Hoyer, & W. R. Wilson (Eds), The role of affect in consumer behavior: Emerging theories and applications (pp. 53-86). Lexington, MA: Heath.

Barclay, L. J., Skarlicki, D. P., & Pugh, S. D. (2005). Exploring the role of emotions in injustice perceptions and retaliation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 629–643.
Bart, Y., Shankar, V., Sultan, F., & Urban, G, L. (2005). Are the drivers and role of online trust the same for all web sites and consumers? A large-scale exploratory empirical study. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 133–152.
Barrett, L. F. (2006). Valence as a basic building block of emotional life. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(1), 35–55.
Baron, J. (1992). The effect of normative beliefs on anticipated emotions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63, 320–330.
Baylor, A.L., & Kim, S. (2009). Designing nonverbal communication for pedagogical agents: When less is more. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 450–457.
Bechwati, N. N., Sisodia, R. S., & Sheth, J. N. (2009). Developing a model of antecedents to consumers' perceptions and evaluations of price unfairness. Journal of Business Research, 62(8), 761–767.
Bechwati, N. N., & Morrin, M. (2003). Outraged consumers: Getting even at the expense of getting a good deal. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(4), 440–453.
Belk, R. W. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 157–164.
Belk, R. W. (1971). Occurrence of word of mouth buyer behavior as a function of situation and advertising stimuli. All vine, Chicago: American Marketing Association.
Berkowitz, E. N., & Walton, J. R. (1980). Contextual influences on consumer price responses: An experimental analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(3), 349–358.
Berry, L. L., Carbone, L. P., Haeckel, S. H. (2002). Managing the total customer experience. Sloan Management Review, 43(3), 120–141.
Bhatnager, A., Misra, S., & Rao, H. R. (2000). On risk, convenience, and Internet shopping behavior. Communications of the Acm, 43(11), 98–105.
Bolton, L. E., Warlop, L., & Alba, J. W. (2003). Consumer perceptions of price (un)fairness. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 474–491.
Bolton, L., & Alba, J. W. (2006). Price fairness: Good and service differences and the role of vendor costs. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(2), 258–265.
Bolton, R. N., & Lemon, K. N. (1999). A dynamic model of customers' usage of services: usage as an antecedent and consequence of satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), 171–186.
Bougie, R., Pieters, R., & Zeelenberg, M. (2003). Angry customers don’t come back, they get back: The experience and implications of anger and dissatisfaction in services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(4), 377–393.
Britt, S. H. (1975). How Weber’s Law Can Be Applied to Marketing. Business Horizons, 18(1), 21–29.
Brynjolfsson, E., & Smith, M. (2000). Frictionless commerce? A comparison of Internet and conventional retailers. Management Science, 46(4), 563–585.
Burgoon, J. K., Bonito, J. A., Bengtsson, B., Cederberg, C., Lundeberg, M., & Allspach, L. (2000). Interactivity in human–computer interaction: a study of credibility, understanding, and influence. Computers in Human Behavior, 16 (6), 533–574.
Cao, Y., Gruca, T. S., & Klemz, B. R. (2003). Internet pricing, price satisfaction, and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(2), 31–50.
Campbell, M. C. (1999). Perceptions of price unfairness: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), 187–199.
Carroll, K., & Coates, D. (1999). Teaching price discrimination: Some clarification. Southern Economic Journal, 66(2), 466–480.
Chen, J., Chen, X., & Song, X. (2002). Bidder’s strategy under group-buying auction on the Internet. IEEE Transactions on Systems, 32(6), 680–690.
Chen, J., Chen, X., & Song, X. (2007). Comparison of the group-buying auction and the fixed pricing mechanism. Decision Support Systems, 43(2), 445– 459.
Cherev, A. (2003). Reverse pricing and online price elicitation strategies in consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1&2), 51–62.
Chitturi, R., Raghunathan, R., & Mahajan, V. (2008). Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. Journal of Marketing, 72(3), 48–63.
Chintagunta, P. K. (2002). Investigating category pricing behavior at a retail chain. Journal of Marketing Research, 32(2), 141–154.
Clay, K., Krishnan, R., Wolff, E., & Fernandes, D. (2002). Retail strategies on the web: price and non-price competition in the online book industry. Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(3), 351–367.
Cohen, J. B. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behaviorial science (2nd edition ed.). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.
Cooke, A. D. J., Meyvis, T., & Schwartz, A. (2001). Avoiding future regret in purchase-timing decisions. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 447–459.
Coulter, K. S., & Coulter, R. A. (2007). Distortion of price discount perceptions: The right digit effect. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(2), 162–173.
Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2000). Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions. New York: Guilford Press.
Cox, J. L. (2001). Can differential prices be fair? Journal of Product & Brand Management, 10(5), 264–275.
Cox, A. D., Cox, D., & Anderson, R. D. (2005). Reassessing the pleasures of store shopping. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 250–259.
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11(6), 671–684.
Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 193–216.
Cyr, D., Hassanein, K., Head, M., & Ivanov, A. (2007). The role of social presence in establishing loyalty in e-Service environments. Interacting with Computers, 19(1), 43–56.
Darke, P. R., & Darren, W. D. (2003). Fairness and discounts: The subjective value of a bargain. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3), 328–338.
Dash, S., & Saji, K. B. (2008). The role of consumer self-efficacy and website social-presence in customers’ adoption of B2C online shopping: An empirical study in the indian context. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 20(2), 33–48.
Davis, L., Wang, S., & Lindridge, A. (2008). Culture influences on emotional responses to on-line store atmospheric cues. Journal of Business Research, 61(8), 806–812.
Dawson, S., Bloch, P. H., & Ridgway, N. M. (1990). Shopping motives, emotional states, and retail outcomes. Journal of Retailing, 60(4), 408–427.
Dickson, P. R., & Kalapurakal, R. (1994). The use and perceived fairness of price-setting rules in the bulk electricity market. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15(3), 427–448.
Dolan, R. J., & Simon, H. (1996). Power pricing: How managing price transforms the bottom line. New York: Free Press.
Erickson, G. M., & Johansson, J. K. (1985). The role of price in multi-attribute product evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(2), 195–199.
Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2001). Atmospheric qualities of online retailing: A conceptual model and implications. Journal of Business Research, 54(2), 177–184.
Eroglu, S. A., Machleit, K. A., & Davis, L. M. (2003). Empirical testing of a model of online store atmospherics and shopper responses. Psychology & Marketing, 20(2), 139–150.
Etezadi-Amoli, J., & Farhoomand, A. F. (1996). A structural model of end user computing satisfaction and user performance. Information & Management, 30(2), 65–73.
Finkel, N. J. (2001). Not fair! The typology of commonsense unfairness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Fiore, A. M., & Jin, H. J. (2003). Influence of image interactivity on approach responses towards an online retailer. Internet Research, 13(1), 38–48.
Fiore, A. M., Jin, H. J., & Kim, J. (2005a). For fun and profit: Hedonic value from image interactivity and responses toward an online store. Psychology & Marketing, 22(8), 669–694.
Fiore, A. M., Kim, J., & Lee, H. H. (2005b). Effect of image interactivity technology on consumer responses toward the online retailer. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 19(3), 38–53.
Flavián, C., Guinalíu, M., & Gurrea, R. (2006). The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty. Information & Management, 43(1), 1–14.
Folkes, V. S., Koletsky, S., & Graham, J. L. (1987). A field study of causal inferences and consumer reaction: The view from the airport. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4), 534–539.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39–47.
Frank, R. H. (1988). Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. New York: Norton.
Frijda N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Galanxhi, H., &Nah, F. F. H. (2007). Deception in cyberspace: A comparison of text-only vs. avatar-supported medium. International journal of human-computer studies, 65(9), 770–783.
Gauri, D. K., Sudhir, K., & Talukdar, D. (2008). The temporal and spatial dimensions of price search: insights from matching household survey and purchase data. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(2), 226–240.
Garbarino, E., & Strahilevitz, M. (2004). Gender differences in the perceived risk of buying online and the effects of receiving a site recommendation. Journal of Business research, 57(7), 768–775.
Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (2003). Managing user trust in B2C e-services. e-Service Journal, 2(2), 7–24.
Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., & Straub, D. W. (2003). Trust and TAM in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Quarterly, 27 (1), 51–90.
Godes D., & Mayzlin, D. (2004). Using online conversations to study word-of-mouth communication. Marketing Science, 23(4), 545–560.
GUO, J. (2007). Business-to-business electronic market place selection. Enterprise Information Systems, 1(4), 383–419.
Grabner-Kra¨uter, S., & Kaluscha, E.A. (2003). Empirical research in on-line trust: A review and critical assessment. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (6), 783–812.
Green, P. E., & Rao, V. R. (1972). Configural synthesis in multidimensional scaling. Journal of Marketing Research, 9(1), 65–68.
Grewal, D., & Marmorstein, H. (1994). Market price variation, perceived price variation, and consumers' price search decisions for durable goods. Journal Of Consumer Research, 21(3), 453–460.
Grewal, D., Hardesty, D., & Iyer, G. (2004). The effects of buyer identification and purchase timing on consumers’ perceptions of trust, price fairness, and repurchase intentions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(4), 87–100.
Griskevicius, V., Goldstein, N. J., Mortensen, C. R., Sundie, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T.(2009). Fear and loving in lasvegas: Evolution, emotion, and persuasion. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(3), 384–395.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C. Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle R, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc...
Hansen, F. (1972). Consumer Choice Behavior. New York: The Free Press.
Hausman, A. V., & Siekpe, J. S. (2009). The effect of web interface features on consumer online purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 5–13.
HarrisInteractive. (2004). Online Consumers Spend $18.5 Billion During 2003 Holiday Season, According to the Goldman Sachs, Harrish Interactive and Nielsen/Netratings Holiday eSpending Report, / http://www.harrisinteractive.com/news/allnewsbydate.asp?NewsID=738S (accessed August 2004)).
Hassanein, K., & Head, M. (2007) Manipulating perceived social presence through the web interface and its impact on attitude towards online shopping. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65(8), 689–708.
Haws, K., & Bearden, W. O. (2006). Dynamic pricing and consumer fairness perceptions. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(6), 304–311.
Homburg, C., Hoyer, W. D., & Koschate, N. (2007). Customers' reactions to price increases: Do customer satisfaction and perceived motive fairness matter? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 36–49.
Holbrook, M. B. (1986). Emotion in the consumption experience: Toward a new model of consumer behavior. In R. A. Peterson, W. D. Hoyer, & W. R. Wilson (Eds), The role of affect in consumer behavior: Emerging theories and applications (pp. 17-52). Lexington, MA: Heath.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance Structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.
Huppertz, J., Arenson, S., & Evans, R. (1978). An application of equity theory to buyer–seller exchange situations. Journal of Marketing Research, 15(2), 250–260.
Inman, J. J., & Zeelenberg, M. (2002). Regret in repeat purchase versus switching decisions: The attenuating role of decision justifiability. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(1), 116–128.
Iyer, G. R., Miyazaki, A. D., Grewal, D., & Giordano, M. (2002). Linking web-based segmentation to pricing tactics. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 11(5), 288–302.
Izard, C. E. (1991). The Psychology of Emotions. New York: Plenum Press.
Jacoby, J. (2002). Stimulus-Organism-Response Reconsidered: An evolutionary step in modeling (consumer) behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(1), 51–55.
Jacoby, J., & Olson, J. C. (1977). Consumer response to price: an attitudinal, information processing perspective. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.
Jensen, T., Kees J., Burton, S., & Turnipseed, F. L. (2003). Advertised reference prices in an Internet environment: Effects on consumer price perceptions and channel search intentions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(2), 20–33.
Ji, H. S., & George, M. Z. (2008). Determinants of perceived web site interactivity. Journal of Marketing, 72(2), 99–113.
Jones, M. A. (1999). Entertaining shopping experiences: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 6(3), 129–139.
Kamen, J., & Robert, T. (1970). Psychophysics of prices. Journal of Marketing Research, 7(1), 27–35.
Kannan, P. K., & Kopalle, P. K. (2001). Dynamic pricing on the Internet: importance and implications for consumer behavior. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 5(3), 63–83.
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1986). Fairness as a constraint on profit seeking: Entitlements in the market. American Economic Review, 76(4), 728–741.
Kauffman, R. J., & Wang, B. (2001). New buyers' arrival under dynamic pricing market microstructure: The case of group-buying discounts on the Internet. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(2), 157–188.
Khoo, C., Thyne, M., & Harris, P. (2007). Making cents: the role of consumers’ emotion in property valuation. International Journal of Business and Management, 2(5), 84–89.
Kim, J., Fiore, A. M., & Lee, H. H. (2007). Influences of online store perception, shopping enjoyment, and shopping involvement on consumer patronage behavior towards an online retailer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14(2), 95–117.
Klein, S., & Loebbecke, C. (2003). Emerging pricing strategies on the web: Lessons from the airline industry. Electronic Markets, 13(1), 46–58.
Koenig-Lewis, N., & Palmer, A. (2008). Experiential values over time a comparison of measures of satisfaction and emotion. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(1-2), 69–85.
Kopalle, P. K., Mela, C. F., & Marsh, L. (1999). Dynamic effect of discounting on sales: Empirical analysis and normative pricing implications. Marketing Science, 18(3), 317–332.
Kotler, P. (1988). Marketing management: analysis, planning, implementation and control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kukar-Kinney, M., Xia, L., & Monroe, K. B. (2007). Consumers’ Perceptions of the Fairness of Price-Matching Refund Policies. Journal of Retailing, 83(3), 325–337
Lal, R., & Staelin, R. (1984). An approach for developing on optimal discount pricing policy. Management Science, 30(12), 1524–1539.
Lam, S. Y., Shankar, V., Erramilli, M. K., & Murthy, B. (2004). Customer value, satisfaction, loyalty, and switching costs: An illustration from a business-to-business service context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(3), 293–311.
Lee, Y. K., Lee, C. K., Lee, S. K., & Babin, B. J. (2008). Festivalscapes and patrons' emotions, satisfaction, and loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61(1), 56–64.
Leone, R. P., & Srinivasan, S. S. (1996). Coupon face value: its impact on coupon redemptions, brand sales, and brand profitability. Journal of Retailing, 72(3), 273–289.
Lewis, M., Singh V., & Fay, S. (2006). An empirical study of the impact of nonlinear shipping and handling fees on purchase incidence and expenditure decisions. Marketing Science, 25(1), 97–105.
Lichtenstein, D. R., Bloch, P. H. & Black, W. C. (1988). Correlates of price acceptability. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(2), 243–252.
Lii, Y. S., & Sy, E. (2009). Internet differential pricing: Effects on consumer price perception, emotions, and behavioral responses. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(3), 770–777.
Liljander, V., & Strandvik, T. (1997). Emotions in service satisfaction. Internal of Journal Service Industry Management, 8(2), 148–169.
Loveman, G. W. (1998). Employee satisfaction, customer loyalty, and financial per-formance: An empirical examination of the service profit chain in retail banking. Journal of Service Research, 1(1), 18–31.
Major, B. (1994). From social inequality to personal entitlement: the role of social comparisons. Legitimacy appraisals, and group membership, in advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.
Major, B., & Testa, M. (1989). Social comparison processes and judgments of entitlement and satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25(2), 101–120.
Malaviya, P. (2001). Human participants-respondents and researchers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10(1/2), 115–121.
Manning, C. K., Sprott, D. E., & Miyazaki, A. D. (1998). Consumer response to quantity surcharges: Implications for retail prices setters. Journal of Retailing, 74(3), 373–399.
Mansfield, N. J. & Griffin, M. J. (2000). Difference thresholds for automobile seat vibration. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 255–261.
MasterCard Survey. (2010, February 23). Eight in ten respondents in Asia/pacific, Middle East and Africa are satisfied with online shopping. Singapore, Author. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from the MasterCard Worldwide: http://www.masterintelligence.com/reports.jsp
Martins, M. (1995). An experimental investigation of the effects of perceived price fairness on perceptions of sacrifice and value. Urbana Champaign: University of Illinois.
McKinney, L. N. (2004). Creating a satisfying Internet shopping experience via atmospheric variables. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28(3), 268–283.
Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.
Michael, T. (2008). Releasing the regret lock: consumer response to new alternatives after a sale. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), 1039–1059.
Monroe, K. B. (1971a). Psychophysics of prices: A reappraisal. Journal of Marketing Research, 8(2), 248–251.
Monroe, K. B. (1971b). Measuring Price Thresholds by Psychophysics and Latitudes of Acceptance. Journal of Marketing Research, 8(4), 460–464.
Monroe, K. B., & Lee, A. Y. (1999). Remembering versus knowing: issues in buyers' processing of price information. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 207–225.
Morton, F. S., Zettelmeyer, F., & Risso, J. S. (2000). Internet car retailing. New Haven, CT:Mimeo, Yale University,.
Morton, F. S., Zettelmeyer, F., & Risso, J. S. (2001). Internet Car Retailing. Journal of Industrial Economics, 49(4), 501–519.
Nagle, T. T., & Holden, R. K. (1995). The strategy and tactics of pricing: a guide to profitable decision making. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Nijs, V. R., Srinivasan, S., & Pauwels, K. H. (2007). Retail-price drivers and retailer profits. Marketing Science, 26(4), 473–487.
Odlyzko, A. (2003). Privacy, economics, and price discrimination on the Internet. Pittsburgh, PA: International Conference on Electronic Commerce.
Oliver, R. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460–469.
Oliver R. (1981). Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction processes in retail settings. Journal of Retailing, 57(3), 25–48.
Oliver R. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 418–430.
Oliver, R. L., & Swan, J. E. (1989a). Consumer perceptions of interpersonal equity and satisfaction in transactions: A field survey approach. Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 21–35.
Oliver, R. L., & Swan, J. E. (1989b). Equity and disconfirmation perceptions as influences on merchant and product satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 372–383.
O’Neill, R. M., & Lambert, D. R. (2001). The emotional side of price. Psychology & Marketing, 18(3), 217–237.
O'Shaughnessy, J., & O'Shaughnessy, N. J. (2002). The marketing power of emotion. Oxford University Press, USA.
Otto, J. R., & Chung, Q. B. (2000). A framework for cyber-enhanced retailing: Integrating e-commerce retailing with brick-and-mortar retailing. Electronic Markets, 10(3), 185–191.
Park, M., & Lennon, S. J. (2009). Brand name and promotion in online shopping contexts. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 13(2), 149–160.
Pauwels, K. H., Srinivasan,S., & Franses P. H. (2007). When do price thresholds matter in retail categories? Marketing Science, 26(1), 83–100.
Raghubir, P. (2006). An information processing review of the subjective value of money and prices. Journal of Business Research, 59(10-11), 1053–1062.
Raghunathan, R., & Pham, M. T. (1999). All negative moods are not equal: Motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 79 (1), 56–77.
Remus, W. (1989). Using students as subjects in experiments on decision support systems. Twenty-Second Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 176–180.
Peter, J. P., & Olson, J. C. (1993). Consumer behavior and marketing strategy. IR WIN.
Pfister, H. R., & Böhm, G. (2008). The multiplicity of emotions: A framework of emotional functions in decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(1), 5–17.
Rust, R.T., & Sahorik, A. J. (1993). Customer satisfaction, customer retention, and market share. Journal of Retailing, 69(2), 193–215.
Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145–172.
Schaffer, L. C., & Hannafin, M. J., (1986). The effects of progressive interactivity on learning from interactive video. Educational Communication and Technology, 34(2), 89–96.
Scholten, P. S., & Smith, S. A. (2002). Price dispersion then and now: evidence from retail and e-tail markets. Advances in Microeconomics: Economics of the Internet and e-Commerce, 11, 63–88.
Seetharaman, P. B., & Che, H. (2009). Price competition in markets with consumer variety seeking. Marketing Science, 28(3), 516–525.
Sherman, E., Mathur, A., & Smith, R. B. (1998). Store environment and consumer purchase behavior: Mediating role of consumer emotions. Psychology and Marketing, 14(4), 361–378.
Shih, H. P. (2004). An empirical study on predicting user acceptance of e-shopping on the web. Information & Management, 41(3), 351–368.
Simon, H. A. (1995). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 64(1), 99–118.
Singh J. (1998). Consumer complaint intentions and behavior: Definitional and taxonomical issues. Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 93–107.
Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061–1086.
Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London, UK: Wiley.
Solomon, R. C., & Stone, L. D. (2002). On "positive" and "negative" emotions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 32(4), 417–435.
Storm, C., & Storm, T. (1987). A taxonomic study of the vocabulary of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 805–816.
Strauss, J., & Frost, R. (1999). Marketing on the Internet: Principles of online marketing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Szymanski, D. M., & Henard, D. H. (2001). Customer satisfaction: a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(1), 16–35.
Tang, F. F., & Xing, X. (2001). Will the growth of multi-channel retailing diminish the pricing effciency of the web? Journal of Retailing, 77(3), 319–333.
Tauber, E. M. (1972). Why do people shop? Journal of Marketing, 36(4), 46–59.
Teo, H., Oh, L., Liu, C., & Wei, K., (2003). An empirical study of the effects of interactivity on web user attitude. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(3), 281–305.
Tsiros, M. (2008). Releasing the regret lock: Consumer response to new alternatives after a sale. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), 1039–1059.
Thaler, R. (1985). Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing Science, 4(3), 199–214.
Thang, D.C. L., & Tan, B. L. B. (2003). Linking consumer perception to preference of retail stores: an empirical assessment of the multi-attributes of store image. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 10(4), 193–200.
Tykocinski, O. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1998). The consequences of doing nothing: inaction inertia as avoidance of anticipated counterfactual regret. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(3), 607–616.
Tykocinski, O. E., Pittman, T. S., & Tuttle, E. E. (1995). Inaction inertia: Foregoing future benefits as a result of an initial failure to act. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 (5), 793–803.
Urbany, J. E., Madden, T. J., & Dickson, P. R. (1989). All’s not fair in pricing: an initial look at the dual entitlement principle. Mark Lett.
Vaidyanathan, J., & Baker, T. (2003). The Internet as an enabler for dynamic pricing of goods. IEEE Transactions and Engineering Management, 50 (4), 470–477.
Vaidyanathan, R., & Aggarwal P. (2003). Who is the fairest of them all? An attributional approach to price fairness perceptions. Journal of Business Research, 56 (6), 453–463.
Van Heerde, H. J., Gijsbrechts, E., & Pauwels, K. (2008). Winners and losers in a major price war. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(5), 499–518.
Van Heerde, H.J., Leeflang, P. S. H., & Wittink, D. R. (2004). Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data. Marketing Science, 23(3), 317–334.
Van Heerde, H. J., Peter, S. H., & Leeflang, D. R. W. (2000). The estimation of pre- and post-promotion dips with store-level scanner data. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(3), 383–395.
Van den Bulte, C., & Lilien, G. (2001). Medical innovation revisited: Social contagion versus marketing effort. American Journal of Sociology, 106(5), 1409–1435.
Van Dijk, E., & Zeelenberg, M. (2005). On the psychology of ‘If Only’: Regret and the comparison between factual and counterfactual outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97 (2), 152–160.
Venkatesan, R., Mehta, K., & Bapn, R. (2006). Understanding the confluence of retailer characteristics, market characteristics and online pricing strategies. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1759–1775.
Viswanathan, S., Kuruzovich, J., Gosain, S., & Agarwal, R. (2007). Online infomediaries and price discrimination: Evidence from the automotive retailing sector. Journal of Marketing, 71(3), 89–107.
Volckner, F., & Sattler, H. (2005). Separating negative and positive effects of price with choice-based conjoint analyses. Marketing-Journal of Research and Management, 1(1), 5–13.
Walczuch, R., & Lundgren, H. (2004). Psychological antecedents of institution-based consumer trust in e-retailing. Information & Management, 42(1), 159–177.
Walster, E. H., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). Equity: theory and research. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Wang, L. C., Baker, J., Wagner, J. A., & Wakefield, K. (2007). Can a retail web site be social? Journal of marketing, 71(3), 143–157.
Xia, L., Monroe, K. B., & Cox, J. (2004). The price is unfair! A conceptual framework of price fairness perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 68(4), 1–15.
Xia, L., Kukar-Kinney, M., & Monroe, K. B. (2010). Effects of consumers’ efforts on price and promotion fairness perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 86(1), 1–10.
Xing, X., Yang, Z., & Tang , F. F.(2006). A comparison of time-varying online price and price dispersion between multichannel and dotcom DVD retailers. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 20(2), 3–20.
Yi, S., & Baumgartner, H. (2004). Coping with negative emotions in purchase-related situations. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(3), 303–317.
Zeelenberg, M., & Putten, M. V. (2005). The dark side of discounts: an inaction inertia perspective on the post-promotion dip. Psychology and Marketing, 22(8), 611–622.
Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (1999). On service delivery that might have been: behavioral responses to disappointment and regret. Journal of Service Research, 2(1), 86–97.
Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2004). Beyond valence in customer dissatisfaction: A review and new findings on behavioral responses to regret and disappointment in failed services. Journal of Business Research, 57(4), 445–455.
Zeitham, V. A. (1982). Consumer response to in–store price information environments. Journal of Consumer Research, 8(4), 357–369.
Zettelmeyer, F. (2000). Expanding to the Internet: pricing and communications strategies when firms compete on multiple channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(3), 292–309.
Zhang, J., & Wedel, M. (2009). The effectiveness of customized promotions in online and offline stores. Journal of Marketing Research, 46(2), 190–206.
Zhou, L., Dai, L., & Zhang, D. (2007). Online shopping acceptance model – a critical survey of consumer factors in online shopping. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 8(1), 41–62.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2020-12-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw