||Empowering personalized learning with e-book technology: The development of the Interactive E-book Learning System (IELS) for elementary school students
||Department of Engineering Science
隨著科技日新月益，各式各樣的個人行動載具如iPad及Android平板電腦被用來做為電子書閱讀器來支援個人化的學習。儘管許多研究曾探討大學生如何應用電子書於學習，但對於國小學童的相關研究確很少。因此，本研究針對國小學童的學習需求，開發一個互動式電子書學習系統（Interactive E-book Learning System; IELS）。首先，本研究在分析及設計過程中，採用多媒體互動原則來設計，並透過與一群現職教師討論諮詢，以瞭解並迎合學生使用電子書在教學上的需求。接著，在系統評估階段，本研究進行三個實驗以驗證本系統的可用性（usability）及機能（functionality）的實際運作，並將性別差異（gender differences）的因素納入評估。實驗一收集了166位國小學童在測試及評估本系統的過程後，針對系統的可用性及改進提出個人的看法。結果顯示，大部份學生抱持正向的態度，認為本系統非常適用於電子書學習情境。實驗二檢驗12位學童的閱讀正確率（reading accuracy）及閱讀速率（reading rate） 在朗讀電子書及紙本書時的差異。結果顯示，二者在閱讀正確率上並無差異。但在閱讀電子書時，嵌入系統之閱讀速率追踪機制，可以提供個別化的閱讀過程記錄來支援學習，則是紙本書無法完成的。最後，實驗三則檢視23位學童之性別差異在閱讀行為及成果的不同，並驗證本系統機能運作。研究結果建議，性別差異應該納入學生在閱讀電子書時重要的因素。綜合上述，本研究為國小學童量身訂做之電子書學習系統，應可提供未來國小在電子書教學應用上，讓學生們獲得更佳的個人化學習經驗。未來研究將朝向實際應用此系統於課堂學習上，達到運用電子書科技來支援個人化的學習的目標。
Today various types of tablet computers are used. These individual portable digital devices can be used as e-book readers to support mobile personalized learning. Though many studies have investigated e-books by targeting undergraduate students, yet less attention has been paid to children. Therefore, the Interactive E-book Learning System (IELS) was developed and evaluated for elementary school students in this study. In the analysis stage, this study integrated the interactive principles of multimedia learning with three e-book learning system components, as empowering students’ personalized learning experiences with e-books. Meanwhile, in order to meet student’s learning needs, a group of in-service teachers was consulted for acquiring their domain expertise in the stage of design and implementation. In the evaluation stage, three investigations were conducted for evaluating the usability and functionality of IELS in practice, meanwhile the gender differences were also considered as the factors in reading of e-books. The first investigation was conducted with 166 elementary school students for evaluating the usability of IELS. Based on their positive attitudes toward the system, it was found that the usability of IELS was well-suited for most of the students. The second investigation was to evaluate the functionality of IELS by verifying the reading accuracy and rate in using e-books and printed books. The results showed that using an e-book or printed book made no significant difference to the students’ reading accuracy. However, the reading rate tracking technique of IELS can provide more detailed logs about the reading process, as comparing with using printed books. Subsequently, the third investigation was to identify the gender differences in reading behaviors and outcomes, and meanwhile verify the functionality of IELS. Based on the results of this work, the gender differences are suggested to factor in children’s reading of e-books. Finally, this study concludes that such a tailor-made e-book learning system can be used in learning with e-books in the future, and is able to achieve a better personalized learning experience for elementary school students.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2.1 The use of e-books in elementary education 5
2.1.1 E-book reading and emergent literacy 5
2.1.2 E-books versus printed books 5
2.1.3 E-book design for children 7
2.2 Gender issue in reading e-books 9
2.2.1 Gender differences in learning 9
2.2.2 Gender differences in the reading of e-books 12
2.3 Reading process in the use of e-books 13
2.3.1 Identifying reading processes from a cognitive perspective 13
2.3.2 Encoding and retrieval procedures in memory 15
2.3.3 The reading status, reading rate, and reading behaviors 15
Chapter 3 System development and experimental analysis 19
3.1 Stage one: analysis 19
3.2 Stage two: design & implementation 24
3.2.1 The functionality of the system 24
3.2.2 Detecting the reading behaviors with the reading rate tracking technique 27
3.3 Stage three: evaluation 29
3.3.1 Surveying students’ attitudes toward the system usability 30
3.3.2 Verifying reading accuracy and rate toward the system functionality 32
3.3.3 Identifying gender differences in reading behaviors and outcomes 35
Chapter 4 Results 39
4.1 Investigation one: students’ attitudes 39
4.1.1 General perceptions 39
4.1.2 Gender differences in attitudes 40
4.2 Investigation two: reading accuracy and rate 43
4.2.1 Reading accuracy between e-books and printed books 43
4.2.2 Reading rate recorded by the system 43
4.3 Investigation three: reading behaviors and outcomes 45
4.3.1 Gendered reading behaviors 45
4.3.2 Gendered reading outcomes 54
Chapter 5 Discussion 55
5.1 Students’ attitudes toward e-book reading 55
5.1.1 Students’ positive attitudes 55
5.1.2 Gender differences in attitudes toward e-book reading 55
5.2 Reading accuracy and rate 56
5.2.1 Reading accuracy with e-books 56
5.2.2 Reading rate changes throughout the reading process 57
5.3 Reading behaviors and outcomes 59
5.3.1 Gender differences in reading behavior 59
5.3.2 Gender differences in reading outcomes 60
Chapter 6 Conclusions 62
6.1 The usability and functionality of IELS 62
6.2 Gender differences in the reading of e-books 63
6.3 The limitation and future research 64
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