||Studies in Knowledge Flow: Evolutional Barriers and Hybrid Approach
||Institute of Information Management
Knowledge Management (KM)
Knowledge management maturity model (KMMM)
Knowledge Navigator Model (KNM), Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT)
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA)
本論文旨在探討企業的知識流動障礙的演變等知識管理研究領域中的議題，文章內容從知識管理活動的回顧，到從事知識管理相關議題研究方法之探討，乃至建構一個複合式研究方法，並以知識流為研究議題實際演練與驗證本研究所提出之複合式研究方法的適用性與延伸的應用，其主要可分為二大部分：第一部分(Chapter 3, Study I: Evolutional Barriers to Knowledge Flow)，從知識管理活動的發展進程的回顧，以知識管理成熟度的角度來觀察在不同階段影響企業組織內知識流動障礙的演變；第二部分(Chapter3, Study II: A Hybrid Approach to Knowledge Flow)，則從知識在組織間流動特性的角度，來探討從事知識管理相關的研究方法，並建構一個有助於從事知識管理或是社會科學研究等相關議題的複合式研究方法。
另外，在從事知識流有關的研究過程中，發現知識管理相關的研究議題往往因為涉及知識量的龐大或內容過於複雜、且傳遞與接收的過程互動頻繁等情境因素，或是從事研究者的主觀價值判斷等因素，而使研究的進行面臨各種不同挑戰，而單一方法的研究方法似乎已無法全面掌握這類與知識流動相關的研究議題，因此，本研究的第二部分則從知識流在不同階段演變的觀察與研究過程中，進一步提出一個整合正規概念分析方法(Formal Concept Analysis, FCA)、三角量測觀點(Triangulation)、質性研究方法、以及量化分析工具等的複合式研究方法，並同時應用在知識流的研究上，以實際的案例進一步說明及驗證該複合式研究方法的可行性與適用性。本研究所提出的複合式研究方法在處理知識流動的議題上有相當的助益，亦可克服定性與定量方法等研究限制，預期能助於的協助知識管理相關研究議題或性質相近的管理科學等研究的進行。另外在研究過程中發現，知識流動本質上因涉及知識本身的複雜度、組織的介入、及資訊科技的採用等因素而產生不同的變化，流動障礙因素會隨著為流動情境的不同，產生多元的變化，而障礙因素間亦可能相互影響而進而影響組織內的知識管理活動及績效，所提方法透過概念圖方式呈現各流動障礙因子在知識流上的知識結構與因果關係，亦可協助管理者用來評估與掌握流動障礙因素間之相互關係，以有助於知識管理活動的績效
This article mainly consists of two studies about knowledge flow: (1) an exploratory research about the evolutional barriers to knowledge flow accompanies with KM maturity levels’ changing, and (2) a hybrid approach to knowledge flow.
Study I is about the evolutional barriers to knowledge flow, it started from the observation of the progress of knowledge management (KM) in the last few decades, and in addition, knowledge flow is one of the critical issues in KM. Hence, it intended to help in assessing the progress of KM initiatives in the firm. In this study, the barriers to knowledge flow were categorized according to the cultural historical activity theory (CHAT), and the knowledge navigator model (KNM) was used to address the gaps in the current literatures. As part of exploratory study, longitudinal survey, involving constant observation, development and use of questionnaires and qualitative interviews with experts of seven firms were conducted. The selected sample firms are covered a wide range of KM maturity levels, and triangulation was adopted to enhance the quality of the process. The major findings indicated that: (1) barriers to knowledge flow were inherently different at different KM maturity levels; and (2) various changes in the barriers to knowledge flow were associated with the maturity of the KM.
Study II is about the method to deal with the issue of knowledge flow since that are usually involving various entities and complex interactions with numerous contents and dynamic contexts. This study thus attempts to develop an approach with triangulation to explore the determinants of knowledge flows, as well as the relationships among them. It is designed to handle the issues that arise in the various interactions and numerous contexts among entities and/or activities that are associated with KM. The proposed hybrid approach is found helpful in dealing with the issue of knowledge flow, and can be considered as a way to overcome the limitations both of qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, the findings also show the presence of multi-directional and adaptive interactions among determinants to knowledge flows, and also how these influence a firm’s KM initiatives and performance. The proposed approach focuses on the visualization of probable determinants to knowledge flows within an organization and it can be utilized to evaluate the determinants and their relationships with each other, which many help managers to take actions to achieve more effective and efficient KM.
1. INTRODUCTION 5
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 7
2.1. Knowledge Flow 7
2.2. Related Determinants of Knowledge Flow 9
2.3. Knowledge Management Maturity Model 13
2.4. Research Traditions in Information Systems 17
2.5. Qualitative Analysis 20
2.6. Content Analysis 21
2.7. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) 23
2.8. Triangulation 23
3. STUDY I: “Evolutional Barriers to Knowledge Flow” 26
3.1. Rationale for Study I 26
3.2. Research Methodology 27
3.3. Research Process 28
3.3.1. Instrument Design 29
3.3.2. Data Collection 30
3.3.3. Sample Characteristics 30
3.3.4. Analysis Process 32
3.3.5. Reliability and Validation 34
3.3.6. Results of Content Analysis 36
3.3.7. Results of the Delphi Survey 38
3.4. Research Results and Findings of Study I 42
3.5. Discussion of Study I: The Evolution of Barriers to Knowledge Flows 43
3.6. Implications of Study I 46
4. STUDY II: “A Hybrid Approach to Knowledge Flow” 47
4.1. Rationale for Study II 47
4.2. Research Framework 49
4.3. Research Process 51
4.4. Data collection and analysis with example scenario 51
4.5. Findings of the Example Examined in Study II 58
4.6. Implications of Study II 58
5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 61
5.1. Remarks 61
5.2. Limitations and Future Work 61
6. REFERENCES 63
7. APPENDIX 70
Abernethy, M. A., Horne, M., Lillis, A. M., Malina, M. A., and Selto, F. H., "A multi-method approach to building causal performance maps from expert knowledge," Management Accounting Research (16:2), pp 135-155, 2005.
Ahn, H. J., Lee, H. J., Cho, K., and Park, S. J., "Utilizing knowledge context in virtual collaborative work," Decision Support Systems (39:4), pp 563-582, 2005.
Alavi, M., and Leidner, D. E., "Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues," MIS Quarterly (25:1), pp 107-136, 2001.
Beesley, L. G. A., and Cooper, C., "Deﬁning knowledge management (KM) activities: Towards consensus," Journal of Knowledge Management (12:3), pp 48-62, 2008.
Benson, R., Stacie, F., and Richard, B., "Overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing in virtual teams," Organizational Dynamics (36:3), pp 259-273, 2007.
Bertino, E., Khan, L. R., Sandhu, R., and Thuraisingham, B., "Secure knowledge management: confidentiality, trust, and privacy," Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A, IEEE Transactions (36:3), pp 429-438, 2006.
Bock, G., Zmud, R. W., Kim, Y., and Lee, J., "Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate," MIS Quarterly (29:1), pp 87-111, 2005.
Bock, G. W., and Kim, Y. G. Breaking the Myths of Rewards: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes About Knowledge Sharing Idea Group Publishing, Korea, 2002.
Brandon, D. P., and Hollingshead, A. B., "Transactive memory systems in organizations: Matching tasks, expertise, and people," Organization Science (15:6), pp 633-644, 2004.
Campbell, D. T., and Fiske, D. W., "Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix," Psychological Bulletin (56), pp 81-105, 1959.
Carr, S. C., and MacLachlan, M., "Knowledge flow and capacity development: An introduction to the special issue," Higher Education Policy (19), pp 199-205, 2005.
Chou, T. C., Chang, P. L., Cheng, Y. P., and Tsai, C. T., "A path model linking organizational knowledge attributes, information processing capabilities, and perceived usability," Information & Management (44:4), pp 408-417, 2007.
Cook, T. D., and Campbell, D. T. Quasi-Experimentaion: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA., 1979.
Denzin, N. K. The Resarch Act McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978.
Desouza, K. C., "Strategic contributions of game rooms to knowledge management: Some preliminary insights," Information & Management (41:1), pp 63-74, 2003.
Dixon, N., "The neglected receiver of knowledge sharing," Ivey Business Journal (66:4), pp 35-40, 2002.
Duan, Y., Nie, W., and Coakes, E., "Identifying key factors affecting transnational knowledge transfer," Information & Management (47:7-8), pp 356-363, 2010.
Edvinsson, L., and Malone, M. S. Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company's True Value by Finding its Hidden Roots HarperCollins Publishers, Inc, New York, 1997.
Franco, M., and Haase, H., "Network embeddedness: A qualitative study of small technology-based firms," International Journal of Management and Enterprise Develop (11:1), pp 34-51, 2011.
Gable, G. G., "Integrating case study and survey research methods: An example in information systems," European Journal of Information Systems (13:2), pp 112-126, 1994.
Ganter, B., and Ville, R. Formal Concept Analysis: Mathematical Foundations Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1999.
He, W., Qiao, Q., and Wei, K., "Social relationship and its role in knowledge management systems," Information & Management (46:3), pp 178-180, 2009.
Henry, R. M., McCray, G. E., Purvis, R. L., and Roberts, T. L., "Exploiting organizational knowledge in developing IS project cost and schedule estimate: An empirical study," Information & Management (44:6), pp 598-612, 2007.
Hippel, E. V., ""Sticky information" and the locus of problem solving: Implications for innovation," Management Science (40:4), pp 429-439, 1994.
Hsieh, P. J., Lin, B., and Lin, C., "The construction and application of knowledge navigator model (KNM™): An evaluation of knowledge management maturity Original Research Article," Expert Systems with Applications (36:2), pp 4087-4100, 2009.
Husted, K., and Michailova, S., "Knowledge sharing in Russian companies with western participation " International Management (6:2), pp 17-28, 2002.
Jain, K. K., Sandu, M. S., and Sidu, G. K., "Identifying and overcoming barriers to sharing," Knowledge Management Review (9:4), pp 6-7, 2006.
Jeff, C., Lori, N. K. L., and Kiku, J., "The human resource's influence in shaping IT competence," Industrial Management & Data Systems (111:2), pp 164-183, 2011.
Jick, T. D., "Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action," Administrative Science Quarterly (24:4), pp 602-611, 1979.
Jones, M. C., Cline, M., and Ryan, S., "Exploring knowledge sharing in ERP implementation: An organizational culture framework," Decision Support Systems (41:2), pp 411-434, 2006.
Ju, T. L., Li, C. Y., and Lee, T. S., "A contingency model for knowledge managment capability and innovation," Industrial Management & Data Systems (106:6), pp 855-877, 2006.
Kamhawi, E. M., "The three tiers architecture of knowledge flow and management activities," Information and Organization (20:3-4), pp 169-189, 2010.
Kang, B., Jung, J. Y., Cho, N. W., and Kang, S. H., "Real-time business process monitoring using formal concept analysis," Industrial Management & Data Systems (111:5), pp 652-674, 2011.
Kaplan, B., and Duchon, D., "Combinging qualitative and quantitative methods in information systems research: A case study," MIS Quarterly (12:4), pp 571-586, 1988.
Kazemi, M., and Allahyari, M. Z., "Defining a knowledge management conceptual model by using MADM," Journal of Knowledge Management (14:6), pp 872-890, 2010.
Koskinen, K. U., "Metaphoric boundary objects as coordinating mechanisms in the knowledge sharing of innovation processes," European Journal of Innovation Management (8:3), pp 323-335, 2005.
KPMG, "Knowledge management research report," http://www.kpmg.com (Retrived June 10, 1999), 1998.
Lee, A. S., "Integrating positivist and interpretive approaches to organizational research," Organization Science (2:4), pp 342-365, 1991.
Lee, J., Suh, E., and Hong, J., "A maturity model based CoP evaluation framework: A case study of strategic CoPs in a Korean company," Expert Systems with Applications (37:3), pp 2670-2681, 2010.
Lin, C., Tan, B., and Chang, S., "An exploratory model of knowledge flow barriers within healthcare organizations," Information & Management (45:5), pp 331-339, 2008.
Markus, M. L., "Electronic mail as the medium of managerial choice," Organization Science (5:4), pp 502-527, 1994.
McGraw, K. L., and Harbison-Briggs, K. Knowledge Acquisition: Principles and Guidelines Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989.
Mehta, N., Oswald, S., and Mehta, A., "Infosy Technologies: Improving organizational knowledge flows," Journal of Information Technology (22:4), pp 456-464, 2007.
Mingers, J., "Combining IS research methods: Towards a pluralist methodology," Information Systems Research (12:3), pp 240-259, 2001.
Myers, M. D. Qualitative Research in Business & Management Sage Publications Ltd., Thousand Oaks, CA, 2009.
Ndlela, L. T., and Du Toit, A. S. A., "Establishing a knowledge management programme for competitive advantage in an enterprise," International Journal of Information Management (21:2), pp 151-165, 2001.
Nonaka, I., and Takeuchi, H. The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Create the Dynamics of Innovation Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.
Oleinik, A., "Mixing quantitative and qualitative content analysis: triangulation at work " Quality & Quantity (45:4), pp 859-873, 2011a.
Oleinik, A., "Mixing quantitative and qualitative content analysis: Triangulation at work," Quality & Quantity (45:4), pp 859-873, 2011b.
Pawlowsky, P. Knowledge 2010 – Intellectual Capital as Driver of Wealth Enabling Innovation Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 307-330, 2011.
Pee, L. G., and Kankanhalli, A., "A model of organisational knowledge management maturity based on people, process, and technology," Journal of Information & Knowledge Management (8:2), pp 79-99, 2009.
Priss, U., "Formal concept analysis in information science," Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (40:1), pp 521-543, 2006.
Ramírez, A. M., Morales, V. J. G., and Aranda, D. A., "Knowledge creation and flexibility of distribution of information," Industrial Management & Data Systems (112:2), pp 166-185, 2012.
Renzl, B., "Trust in management and knowledge sharing: The mediating effects of fear and knowledge documentation," Omega (36:2), pp 206-220, 2008.
AMR Research, "The Knowledge Management Spending Report 2007-2008," http://www.amrresearch.com/Content/View.asp?pmillid=20744, 2007.
Riege, A., "Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider," Journal of Knowledge Management (9:3), pp 18-35, 2005.
Schulz, M., and Jobe, L. A., "Codification and tacitness as knowledge management strategies: An empirical exploration," The Journal of High Technology Management Research (12:1), pp 139-165, 2001.
Seidel, J. V., "Qualitative Data Analysis," The Ethnograph 6.0, http://www.qualisresearch.com/qda_paper.htm, 1998.
Shang, S. S. C., and Lin, S., "Understanding the effectiveness of capability maturity model integration by examining the knowledge management of software development processes," Total Quality Management & Business Excellence (20:5), pp 509-521, 2009.
Shaw, D., and Edwards, J. S., "Building user commitment to implementing a knowledge management strategy," Information & Management (42:7), pp 977-988, 2005.
Shin, M., "A framework for evaluating economics of knowledge management systems," Information & Management (42:1), pp 179-196, 2004.
Shin, M., Holden, T., and Ruth, A., "From knowledge theory to management practice: Towards an integrated approach," Information Processing & Management (37:2), pp 335-355, 2001.
Solesvik, M. Z., and Encheva, S., "Partner selection for interfirm collaboration in ship design," Industrial Management & Data Systems (110:5), pp 701-717, 2010.
Straub, D., Boudreau, M. C., and Gefen, D., "Validation guidelines for IS positivist research," Communications of the Association for Information Systems (13), pp 380-427, 2004.
Sullivan, P. H. Value Driven Intellectual Capital: How to Convert Intangible Corporate Assets into Market Value John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2000.
Szulanski, G., "Exploring internal stickiness : Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm," Strategic Management Journal (17:Winter Special), pp 27-43, 1996.
Teh, P. L., and Yong, C. C., "Knowledge sharing in IS personnel: Organizational behavior's perspective," Journal of Computer Information Systems (51:4), pp 11-21, Summer2011, 2011.
Wang, J., Gwebu, K., Shanker, M., and Troutt, M. D., "An application of agent-based simulation to knowledge sharing," Decision Support Systems (46), pp 532-541, 2009.
Wu, J., and Wang, Y., "Measuring KMS success: A respecification of the DeLone and McLean’s model," Information & Management (43:6), pp 728-739, 2006.
Yin, R. K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA, 1984.
Zheng, H., Kang, B., and Kim, H., "Exploiting noun phrases and semantic relationships for text document clustering," Information Sciences (179:13), pp 2249-2262, 2009.
Zhuge, H., "A knowledge flow model for peer-to-peer team knowledge sharing and management," Expert Systems with Applications (23:1), pp 23-30, 2002.
Zhuge, H., "Knowledge flow network planning and simulation," Decision Support Systems (42:2), pp 571-592, 2006.