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論文名稱(中文) 古典時期雅典的收養與繼承: 以伊賽奧斯(Isaeus)之法庭演說辭為例
論文名稱(英文) Adoption and Inheritance in classical Athens: A Case Study of the Forensic Oratory of Isaeus
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 歷史學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of History
學年度 100
學期 1
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 祝亦男
研究生(英文) I-Nan Zhu
學號 k3695102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 147頁
口試委員 指導教授-翁嘉聲
口試委員-凃永清
口試委員-黃俊龍
中文關鍵字 雅典  家庭  婚姻  繼承  收養  法庭演說辭  伊賽奧斯 
英文關鍵字 Athens  household  oikos  marriage  inheritance  adoption  forensic oratory  Isaeus 
學科別分類
中文摘要 雅典家庭最重要的功能是世系的繼承,而對城邦來說這也關係到公民權之傳遞,因此世代延續是家庭與城邦的共同關切。然而若是一個家庭未能及時生育繼承人,這個家庭就有斷嗣的危機,雖然一般來說,家庭的旁系親戚會以所謂的「繼承順序」(anchisteia)來繼承家產,然而此方式卻無法完成理想上世系及財產的同時轉移,僅有家產有人承接,可是世系則無人接續,而造成家庭及世系的消滅,故收養和女繼承人的法律救濟制度因應而生,讓瀕臨滅絕的家庭仍可獲得補救。
本文試圖就收養與女繼承人兩項制度的法庭實例來檢驗雅典家庭財產轉移的規則,以及在家庭與城邦的大脈絡下個人如何運籌帷幄,善用法律和社會規則來達成上述的目的。家庭所牽涉的是更細微的人際網絡,因此從財產繼承的官司中,除了個人、家庭及城邦的關切外,更可看出其中人際關係的調節。本論文共分四章。第一章討論的是雅典的家庭(oikos),雅典人的婚姻模式以及婚姻所締造出的關係又是如何提供個人做為策略的依據去挑戰原先的財產轉移。使得家庭繼承有更多協商的空間。第二章進入雅典家庭延續方式的討論。首先,在正常情況下財富的轉移是由父傳子,這同時還混合監護權的執行問題。當無法做到父子相承時,個人的財產轉移將以三種方式解決:收養繼承、「女繼承人」(epikleros)與死後收養。這些安排都會與所謂的「繼承順序」(anchisteia)息息相關。本章將個別就其運作方式及執行規則做檢視。然而誠如前面所說,所謂的法律,其實是提供個人在實踐上的依據,但無法決定其作為,因為個人常依照自己利益而加以規避或利用法律,因此三、四章便是對於雅典法庭上的實例檢驗,來探索雅典相關法律的實際運作情形以及其中所涉及之策略。第三章討論的是收養繼承的兩個實例,第四章談論的是雅典一個相當特殊的例子,「女繼承人」制度。兩章各自分別使用伊賽奧斯的兩篇演說辭做為範例。透過這四個演說辭案例,我們得以一窺雅典的收養與女繼承人制度是如何運行,從其成案與否將對雅典法庭的特性有更深一層的認識,並從中拼組出雅典社會的樣貌。
英文摘要 Abstract

The most important function of Athenian family is to maintain continuity of lineage for the inheritance of property and the bestowal of citizenship for the next generation. It is therefore a common concern for individual family and polis as a whole. However, if family failed to produce heirs, the family would then disappear and this would harm the interests of polis and even brought about its extinction in the most extreme cases. For this sake the Athenians devised through ages various legal aids to avert this nightmare.


The present research attempts to study the laws and strategies involved in inheritance in Athenian court. It will use the legal cases related to adoption and “heiress” in the corpus of Isaeus, to see how a person could deploy resources of all sorts at his disposal to achieve his purpose and to advance his interest in the possession of property and the continuity of lineage. It will show at the same time that Athenian family is a subtle interpersonal network that could be understood from different perspectives.

This research is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is about the Athenian household (oikos) and marriage, about how a marital relationship could help a person create a basis to challenge the original transfer of property. The second chapter discusses the different ways by which the Athenian family was preserved and propagated: adoption, heiress" (epikleros) and posthumous adoption. All of these arrangements would involve an "order of succession" (anchisteia). The third chapter discusses two instances of adoption and inheritance that came with it; the fourth chapter is about cases of inheritance by the institution of "heiress." The third and fourth chapters are close reading and analysis of four legal cases of Isaeus. It is through these two chapters that we may be able to get a glimpse of how the law about adoption and “heiress” and even how the Athenian court functioned in practice.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………. I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………..III
關鍵字………………………………………………………………………..IV
銘謝…………………………………………………………………………..V
目錄…………………………………………………………………………..VI

第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………1
第一節 章節安排與文獻回顧…………………………………………1
一、 問題意識……………………………………………………..1
二、 文獻回顧……………………………………………………..2
三、 法庭演說辭:四世紀的社會生活記錄……………………..6
四、 章節安排……………………………………………………..8

第二節 家庭:雅典社會的基石……………………………………….10
一、 界定oikos………………………………………………….................10
二、 土地:oikos的經濟來源…………………………………….13
三、 核心家庭:oikos的家庭型態……………………………….17
四、 小結…………………………………………………………...18

第三節 婚姻:關係產生的核心……………………………………….19
一、 婚姻構成的法律條件:婚約………………………………...20
二、 婚姻構成的外在條件:嫁妝………………………………...26
三、 婚姻構成的象徵:婚禮慶祝與同居生子…………………...35
四、 小結…………………………………………………………...38

第二章 雅典的繼承制度…………………………………………………40
第一節 父死子繼的理想運行方式……………………………………..40
一、 子承父業……………………………………………………....41
二、 監護權的轉移………………………………………………....46
三、 小結…………………………………………………………....52


第二節 繼承順序(anchisteia)………………………………………53
一、 復仇順序………………………………………………………...53
二、 繼承順序……………………………………….. ……………..55
三、 與女繼承人成婚之順序………………………………………...60
四、 小結……………………………………………………………...62

第三節 收養繼承:家系的重建………………………………………….64
一、 收養的目的……………………………………………………...64
二、 收養類別………………………………………………………...68
三、 小結……………………………………………………………...72

第四節 女繼承人………………………………………………………….73
一、 女繼承人的婚姻 ……………………………………………....74
二、 女繼承人與收養制度…………………………………………...77
三、 小結……………………………………………………………...80

第三章 無以為繼:雅典的收養制度…………………………………...81
第一節 雅典的法庭……………………………………………………….81
一、 雅典的民主:isonomia與isegoria…………………………….......81
二、 雅典法庭的運作………………………………………………...86
三、 小結……………………………………………………………...88

第二節 重建社會身分:如何證明父子關係.....................89
一、 如何建立有效的收養…………………………………………....91
二、 關係親疏的消長………………………………………………....93
三、 小結…………………………………………………………......98


第三節 「社會正義」的伸張………………………………………….....98

一、 情與法的破解………………………………………………….....99
二、 訴諸社會正義………………………………………………….....103
三、 小結…………………………………………………………….....105

第四節 小節:收養的理想與實踐.............................106

第四章 無以為繼:雅典的女繼承制度.........................109
第一節 以母之名:女繼承人身分的建立……………………………....110
一、 宜室宜家:雅典人對女性市民的期待………………………....111
二、 婚姻的有效性…………………………………………………....114
三、 收養制度與女繼承人制度的啟動關鍵………………………....117
四、 小結……………………………………………………………....120
第二節 旁系親戚對女繼承人的侵蝕與破壞…………………………....121
一、 旁系親屬的詭計………………………………………………....122
二、 小結……………………………………………………………....127

第三節 女繼承人制度的理想與現實…………………………………....128
第五章 結論............................................131
參考書目…………………………………………………….……………....134
主要人名地名對照……………………………………………………….....139
相關地圖、圖像………………………………………………………….....145
參考文獻 參考書目(Biobliography)

原典資料(Primary Texts): (以重要順序排列)

Isaeus:
Isaeus (Translated with an introduction and notes by Michael Edwards) (University of Texas press, Austin, 2007)
-----no. 2 “On the Estate of Menecles”
-----no. 3 “On the Estate of Pyrrhus”
-----no. 6 “On the Estate of Philoctemon”
-----no. 7 “On the Estate of Apollodorus”
-----no. 8 “On the Estate of Ciron”
-----no. 9 “On the Estate of Astyphilus”
-----no. 10 “Against Xenaenetus on the estate of Aristarchus”
-----no. 11 “On the Estate of Hagnias”
Demosthenes:
Demosthenes 27-38(Translated by Douglas M. MacDowell) (University of Texas press, Austin, 2004)
Demosthenes V. Private Orations XLI-XLIX (Trans. A. T. Murray) Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass., 1990)
Demosthenes VI. Private Orations L-LVIII& In Neaeram, LIX (Trans. A. T. Murray) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass., 1988)
Aristotle:
Politics(Trans. By T. A. Sinclair)(Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1984)
The Athenian Constitution(Translation with an introduction and notes by P. J. Rhodes)(Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1984)
Plutarch:
Plutarch’s Lives, I. Theseus and Romulus. Lycurgus and Numa. Solon and Publicola (Trans. by Bernadotte Perrin ) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass., 1982)
Plutarch’s Lives III. Pericles and Fabius Maximus, Nicias and Crossus (Trans.
by Bernadotte Perrin) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass., 1984)
Isocrates:
Isocrates, Volume I (Trans. by George Norlin ) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass.,1991)
Lysias:
Lysias (Trans. by W. R. M. Lamb) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass.,1998)
Xenophon:
Oeconomicus: A Social and Historical Commentary. Sarah B.Pomeroy(ed.)(Clarendon, Oxford,1994)
Plato:
Plato: Laws, Books 1-6 (Trans. by R. G. Bury) (Loeb Classical Library, Heinemann/ Havard University Press, London/ Cambridge, Mass., 1984)
資料選輯(Collection of Sources):
Lefkowitz , Mary R. & Fant , Maureen B. (edd. &trans.): Women’s Life in Greece&Rome(Duckworth, London, 1992)

參考文獻(Secondary Literature):
Asheri , D.: “Laws of Inheritance, Distribution of Land and Political Constitution in Ancient Greece,” Historia 12, 1963, pp. 1-21.
Balot , Ryan K.: Greek Political Thought (Blackwell Publishing, 2006)
Blundell , Sue: Women in Ancient Greece (British Museum Press , London, 1995)
Bryant , Joseph M.: Moral codes and social structure in ancient Greece: a sociology of Greek ethics from Homer to Epicureans and Stoics (State University of New York Press, 1996)
Cohen, David: Law, Violence and Community in Classical Athens (CUP, Cambrodge, 1995)
Colin , Armand (ed.): A History of the Family(Cambridge, UK: Polity Press,1996)
Connolly, Peter & Dodge, Hazel: The Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens& Rome (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998 )
Cooper , Alison Burford: “The Family Farm in Greece,” The Classical Journal Vol. 73, No. 2(1977-1978), pp. 162-175.
Cox , Anne Cheryl: Household Interests : property, marriage strategies, and family dynamics in ancient Athens (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1998).
Davies , J. K. “Athenian Citizenship: The Descent Group and Alternatives”The Classical Journal, Vol. 73, No. 2 (Dec., 1977-Jan. , 1978), pp.105-121.
Duby , Georges and Perrot , Michelle (edd.): A History of women in the West vol. 1 (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1992)
Edwards , Michael: The Attic Orators (Bristol Classical Press, London, 1994)
Finley , M. I.: Economy and Society in Ancient Greece (The Hogarth Press, London, 1981)
Foxhall, Lin. & Lewis, A. D. E. (edd.): Greek Law in its Polirical Setting : Justifications not Justice (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996)
Foxhall , Lin: “Household , Gender and Property in Classical Athens” The Classical Quarterly 39 (01), pp.22-44.
Gould , John: “Law, Custom and Myth: Aspects of the Social Position of Women in Classical Athens”, Journal of Hellenic Studies 100(1980) ,pp. 38-59.
Harrison , A. R . W.: The Law of Athens Vol. I, The family and Property (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968)
Humphreys , Sarah C.: The Family, Women and death: comparative studies (Routledge
& Kegan Paul, London , 1993)
Humphreys , S. C., (1986) “Kinship patterns in the Athenian courts” GRBS 27, 1986
Jebb , Richard Claverhouse:
------: The Attic orators from Antiphon to Isaeus I (Thoemmes Press, Bristol,2002)
------: The Attic orators from antiphon to Isaeus II (Thoemmes Press, Bristol, 2002)
Just , Roger :Women in Athenian law and life (Routledge, London, 1989).
Kinzl , Konard H. (ed.): A Companion to the Classical Greek World (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)
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Lanni , Adriaan: Law and Justice in the Courts of Classical Athens (Cambridge University , New York ,2006)
MacDowell, D. M. :The Law in Classical Athens (Cornell University Press, New York, 1978)
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Osborne, Robin Demos: The Discovery of Classical Attika (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1985)
Patterson , Cynthia B. : The Family in Greek History (Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1998)
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Rehm , Rush: Marriage to death: the conflation of wedding and funeral rituals in Greek tragedy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994)
Roy , J. “Polis and Oikos in Classical Athens”Greece & Rome, Vol. 46, No. 1, (Apr. 1999), pp. 1-18.
Rubinstein , Lene : Adoption in IV. Century Athens (Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, 1993)
Scafuro, Adele C. : The Forensic stage: settling disputes in Graeco-Roman new comedy(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997)
Sealey , Raphael:
------:The Justice of the Greeks (The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1994)
------: Women and Law in Classical Greece(The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London 1990)
Strauss, Barry S. : Fathers & Sons in Athens: Ideology and Society in the Era of the Peloponnesian War (Routledge, London, 1993)
Sutton, Jr., Robert F. ‘Family Portraits: Recognizing the “Oikos”on Attic Red-Figure Pottery’Hesperia Supplement, vol. 33, XAPIΣ: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr (2004), pp.327-350.
Thompson , Wesley E.: De Hagniae Hereditate: An Athenian inheritance case (Brill Academic Pub, Leiden, 1976)
Thompson , Wesley E. “The Marriage of First Cousins in Athenian Society”Phoenix, Vol. 21, No. 4(Winter, 1967) Classical Association of Canada 1967, pp. 273-282.
Todd, S. C. : The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford University Press ,New York, 1993)
Wolff , H. J. “Marriage Law and Family Organization in Ancient Arhens,”Traditio 2(1944) : 44-95.

中文資料
翁嘉聲:
------:〈身體與政體身體之社會建構:對希臘Pederasty及同性變之初步探討〉,《成大西洋史集刊》,第7期,台南:成功大學歷史系,1997年,頁1-109。
------:〈土生土長為雅典人的憲章神話〉,《成大西洋史集刊》第9期,台南:成功大學歷史系,1999年,頁127-180
------:〈評介帕席翁之子阿波羅多祿斯之[Demosthenes]59 Kata Neairas〈控訴妮愛拉〉和其譯文,收於成大歷史學報第24期,成大歷史系,台南市,1999年。
許琇智,《雅典法律與女人》,國立成功大學碩士論文,1999
高夫曼(Erving Goffman) 著,曾凡慈譯,《污名:管理受損身分的筆記》(臺北:群學,2010﹝1963﹞)。
布赫迪厄(Pierre Bourdieu)&華康德(Loїc Wacquant )著,李孟、李康譯,《社會學面面觀》臺北:麥田,2oo8
工具書(Reference Books)
Hornblower, Simon and Antony Spawforth edd. The Oxford Classical Dictionary(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd. ed. 2003)(縮寫為OCD)
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