||Action Research on EFL Parent-child Picture Book Reading: The Effects of a Parent Workshop and Home Reading Practices with Young Children
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature (on the job class)
L1 and L2
本研究包含量化和質性的研究，前者為大規模統計台南市十所幼兒園的家長(N = 807) 對於親子共讀中英文繪本的信念與實際做法；後者是五位家長參與英語繪本工作坊和她們在家對八位幼兒實行親子共讀英語繪本之紀錄。家長英語繪本工作坊包含兩部分：為期兩個月的先導研究和四個月的主要研究，分別包含五位家長和她們的八位幼兒。工作坊的進行方式是由研究者介紹並示範英語繪本的唸法和使用英語和孩子互動的技巧。家長相互練習後回家實施每週一至兩次的親子共讀英語繪本並做紀錄。一週後，家長於工作坊分享實施情形與問題並繼續學習。研究者根據實施前後問卷、家長學習心得紀錄表、家長實施親子共讀觀察紀錄單、幼兒單字前測及後測來分析家長與幼童的成長與改變。
Parents, who lead their children to experience the world around them, are literally the first teachers of their children (Golinkoff & Hirsh-pasek, 1999). Most parents never learn how to teach their children the mother tongue, but somehow children manage to acquire L1 with apparent ease. The researcher hypothesized that if L2 acquisition began at home, it might be natural and perhaps successful, too, with the additional help of a parent picture book workshop device focused on getting acquainted with picture books and interactive skills with young children in L2. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the L2 parent picture book workshop and their home practices with their children to facilitate the L2 learning of both the parents and their children.
This study was both quantitative and qualitative which included a large-scale survey on parent-child picture book reading for parents of kindergarteners in the Tainan City (N = 807) and an L2 picture book workshop with five parents and their home reading practices with their respective eight children. The survey was to identify parents’ opinions on the influence of reading L1 and L2 picture books to children and their real practices in promoting reading environment for their children. The parent workshop included a two-month pilot study and a four-month main study on two groups of people which both included five parents and their eight children respectively, in which target English picture books were introduced and modeled how to read to the parents, followed by reading practice in pairs with additional interactive skills they could use with their children. After the training session, the parents did parent-child book reading at home at least once or twice a week. After a week, the workshop training session continued with parents’ feedback on their home reading practices and more learning and practice. Pre-questionnaires and post-questionnaires on a four-point scale, session logs and parent logs, and open-ended questionnaires, children’s vocabulary pretest and posttest results were collected and analyzed to examine the changes of parents and children throughout the study.
The findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1. Most caretakers of kindergarteners in the survey were between the ages of 31 to 40, and most caretakers held college/university degrees. Most parents held positive attitudes about L1 and L2 parent-child reading, which would enhance children’s language ability and parent-child relationship. However, negative responses on the efficacy of L2 parent-child reading on children’s English ability and parent-child relationship were also found.
2. It was found that parents in the workshop encountered difficulties concerning choice of books and reading skills. As for the effectiveness of the workshop and parent-child reading at home, results showed a large decrease in difficultly among parents concerning parent-child L2 reading after the workshop.
3. The workshop had a positive impact on parental attitudes towards English learning and personal growth. Parents assessed themselves with improvement in English and in personal growth in terms of three aspects: the workshop offered them chances to learn and practice English; they learned from each other in educating children and English learning; and they showed willingness to propose questions and attempts to find solutions. In addition, all parents reported they gained abilities in doing L2 parent-child reading such as useful skills in interacting with their children in English and methods concerning English learning. Moreover, the results of parent logs and Post-QAO demonstrated improvement in parent-child relationship.
4. The effectiveness of the workshop and parent-child reading on children can be interpreted in two dimensions, i.e., children’s interest and motivation in L2 learning and improvement in English. It was found that children seemed more interested and motivated in L2 learning with their parent’s participation in the workshop and home practices of parent-child book reading. Parents reported the children in the older group improved most in speaking in L2 with some gains in listening and reading, whereas the children in the younger group lengthened their attention span in looking at picture books. In addition, they could also follow instructions and point to pictures named by the parents. Moreover, it was found that most children made significant progress in the target vocabulary listening and speaking tests, which meant L2 parent-child reading facilitated children’s L2 vocabulary acquisition.
The results showed that the difficulties parents encountered concerning books and reading skills in L2 parent-child reading could be overcome by the L2 parent picture book reading workshop and parent-child book reading at home. The workshop had a positive impact on parental attitudes towards English learning, personal growth, and their skills for doing L2 parent-child reading. Evidence of improvement in parent-child relationship was also found in parent logs. As for children, their L2 learning motivation, learning outcome and vocabulary increased. The implication of this study is to promote more workshops in L2 parent-child reading for assisting parents and children in the path of L2 learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iii
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xiv
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 9
Significance of the Study 11
Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 16
Language Acquisition for Preschool Children 16
Advantages of Being Bilingual 17
Stages of Second Language Acquisition 18
Tabors’ Stages of Second Language Acquisition 18
Owen’s Stages of Development in Successive Bilingualism 20
Strategies to Facilitate Language Learning 21
Read-alouds and Parent-child Book Reading 25
Benefits of Reading Aloud to a Child 25
Functions of Read-alouds 28
Parent Involvement in Children’s Language Learning 29
Picture Books and Language Learning 32
Functions of Picture Books in Language Learning 32
Picture Book Types for Preschool Children 34
Techniques to Read with Preschool Children 35
Policies and Research on Parent-child Book Reading 37
Policies on L1 Parent-child Reading in Different Countries 37
Research Concerning EFL Parent-child Picture Book Reading in Taiwan 39
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 44
Overview of the Methodology 44
Pilot Study 48
Data Collection 51
Findings of the Pilot Study 51
Main Study 52
Materials and Instruments 55
Reading Materials 56
Session Logs and Parent Logs 58
Vocabulary Pretest and Posttest 59
Data Analysis 65
The Summary of the Study Design 66
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 69
1. The Results of Survey on Parents’ of Kindergarteners Beliefs and Real Practices in L1 and L2 Parent-child Picture Book Reading
RQ 1-A 71
RQ 1-B 73
RQ 1-C 74
RQ 1-D 75
2. The Difficulties Parents of the L2 Parent-child Picture Book Reading Workshop Encounter and the Overall Effects of the Workshop and Home Reading Practices
RQ 2-A 78
RQ 2-B 81
3. Parents’ Responses to the Workshop and their Home Reading Practices 85
RQ 3-A 85
RQ 3-B 94
RQ 3-C 97
4. Children’s Responses on Parent-child Home Reading Practices 100
RQ 4-A 100
RQ 4-B 108
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 114
Summary of the Major Findings 114
Limitation of the Study 118
Suggestions for Practice 120
For Teacher Facilitators 120
For Parents 121
For English Teachers or Principals of Kindergartens and Elementary Schools
For Educational Authorities and Government Decision- makers
Suggestions for Future Studies 125
APPENDIX A: Participant Consent Form for Main Study 142
APPENDIX B: Survey Questionnaire (SQ) 143
APPENDIX C: Workshop Orientation for Pilot Study 145
APPENDIX D: Pre-questionnaire and Post-Questionnaire for Pilot Study 146
APPENDIX E: Workshop Plan for Pilot Study 147
APPENDIX F: Session Log and Parent Log Form for Pilot Study 148
APPENDIX G: Workshop Orientation for Main Study 149
APPENDIX H: Pre-QC and Post-QC for Main Study 150
APPENDIX I: Post-QAM for Main Study 152
APPENDIX J: Post-QAO for Main Study 154
APPENDIX K: Session Log and Parent Log Form for Main Study 156
APPENDIX L: Vocabulary Pretest and Posttest for Main Study 157
APPENDIX M: Participants’ Demographic Information for Main Study 159
APPENDIX N: Session Plans for Main Study 160
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 The Five Methods of Language Learning 23
2.2 Supplementary Strategies Applied in the Workshop 24
2.3 Research Concerning EFL Parent-child Picture Book Reading in Taiwan 42
3.1 Information of the Ten Kindergartens in the Tainan City Participated in the Survey 48
3.2 Parents’ and Children’s Demographic Information in the Pilot Study 49
3.3 Parents’ and Children’s Demographic Information in the Main Study 55
3.4 Picture Books for Main Study 57
3.5 Instructions of Giving a Vocabulary Pretest and Posttest 60
3.6 Coding System for Qualitative Data Analysis 66
3.7 Summary of the Study Design 67
4.1 Main Caretakers’ Age Distribution in the Survey 72
4.2 Main Caretakers’ Educational Background in the Survey 72
4.3 Parents’ Perception on the Influence of Reading L1 and L2 Picture Books to Children
4.4 Parents Reading L1/L2 Picture Books to Children and L1/L2 Picture Book Display at Home
4.5 Parents’ Self-estimated Capabilities of Doing L2 Parent-child Picture Book Reading for the Survey Items 1-5
4.6 Parents’ Self-estimated Capabilities of Doing L2 Parent-child Picture Book Reading for the Survey Items 6-15
4.7 The Mean Values of Pre-QC in Main Study 80
4.8 The Mean Values of Pre-QC and Post-QC in Main Study Items 1-5 82
4.9 The Mean Values of Pre-QC and Post-QC in Main Study Items 6-15 84
4.10 The Mean Values of Post-QAM (1) Items 1-13 86
4.11 The Results of Post-QAO (1) Items 1-3 93
4.12 The Mean Values of Post-QAM (2) Items 14-16 94
4.13 The Results of Post-QAO (2) Items 4 and 5 99
4.14 The Mean Values of Post-QAM (3) Items 17-25 101
4.15 The Results of Post-QAO (3) Items 6 and 7 107
4.16 The Results of Children’s Vocabulary Pretest and Posttest 109
LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 The Structure of the Research 6
1.2 Pitcher’s Model of SoMIRAC Parent Book Clubs 7
1.3 The L2 Parent Workshop Model in this Study 8
2.1 Tabors’ Stages of Second Language Acquisition 20
2.2 Owen’s Stage of Development in Successive Bilingualism 21
2.3 The Reading Cycle (Chambers, 1991) 30
3.1 The Framework of the Research 46
3.2 Parents’ Self-estimated Capabilities in L2 Parent-child Book Reading before and after the Workshop in Pilot Study
3.3 Structure of the Research Procedure 64
4.1 The Structure of the Data Analysis 70
4.2 Scale of Parents’ Capabilities in Doing L2 Parent-child Book Reading before and after the Workshop in Main Study
4.3 A Comparison Chart of Children’s Vocabulary Listening and
Speaking Pretest and Posttest
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