||Effects of Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction on High School Students’ Reading Comprehension
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature (on the job class)
Interactive reading strategy instruction
With regard to the goal of the reading competence of curriculum for junior high school in Taiwan, the emphasis is put on the learning the use of cognitive strategies to independently comprehend all kinds of texts. Teaching and learning cognitive strategies is therefore a crucial issue in Taiwan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the interactive reading strategy (IRS) instruction on junior high school students’ reading comprehension. The participants’ performances on different types of reading comprehension questions were further examined to see if there were significant effects of strategy instruction on participants’ acquisition of diverse reading strategies. In addition, the study explored participants’ the frequencies of the students’ strategy use and their responses to the interactive reading strategy instruction.
The participants of the present study included 68 ninth-graders from a junior high school in Tainan County. Six specific strategiesfinding detailed information, identifying pronoun references, guessing the meaning of a vocabulary, formulating the main idea, inferring the occasion, and making inferenceswere adopted to teach through diverse teaching methods. During the eight-week strategy instruction, these strategies were taught through explicit strategy instruction, teacher’s modeling, teacher’s scaffolding, writing recording sheets, group discussion, and independent reading. The reading comprehension questions of the mock test of the Elementary Level of GEPT were used as the pretest and posttest to measure the participants’ reading comprehension before and after the instruction. A questionnaire was conducted to explore participants’ frequencies of strategy use and their attitudes toward the interactive reading strategy instruction. Based on the data analyses, the major findings of the study were summarized as follows.
1. The participants made improvement after receiving the instruction, which implied that IRS instruction also worked in a Taiwanese setting since it can foster students’ use of strategies to enhance their reading comprehension.
2. To be specific, among the students with different proficient levels, low proficient students benefited most from the IRS instruction.
3. The IRS instruction enhanced students’ abilities of finding detailed information, inferring the occasion, guessing the vocabulary, and making the inference. However, the results showed that it was not effective enough for students to identify the reference and formulate the main idea of a text.
4. The frequencies of participants’ strategy use increased after the instruction, which indicated that the IRS instruction effectively build up students’ knowledge of using strategies.
5. Most of the students had positive responses toward the strategy instruction. They commonly agreed that the IRS instruction help them acquire the strategies and enhance their comprehension.
6. Among the six teaching methods, group discussion was considered as the most effective one (42.6%) that helped students acquire the instructed strategies while writing recording sheets was regarded as the least effective teaching method (1.5%) during the strategy instruction.
In sum, this proposed IRS instruction can enhance EFL learners’ reading comprehension, and the participants commonly had positive attitudes toward the IRS instruction. The findings of the study have pedagogical implications for language practitioners seeking to enhance their teaching practice.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese) II
Abstract (English) IV
Table of Contents VI
List of Tables X
List of Figures XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Purpose of the Study 10
Research Questions 11
Significance of the Study 14
Limitation of the Study 16
Definition of Terms 18
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 20
Cognitive Strategy Instruction 20
Approaches of Reading Strategy Instruction 22
Reciprocal Teaching 24
Direct Explanation Model 27
Transactional Strategies Instruction 29
Recent Explicit Strategy Instruction 31
Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction 33
Explicit Strategy Explanation 33
Teacher’s Modeling 34
Teacher’s Scaffolding 36
Writing Recording Sheets 38
Group Discussion 40
Independent Reading 42
Selection of Cognitive Strategies 43
Basic Competence Test 44
Bloom’s Taxonomy 46
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 51
Reading Comprehension Test 70
Data Analysis 74
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 76
1. Effects of Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction on Junior High School Students’ Reading Comprehension 78
Question 1-A 79
Question 1-B 80
2. Effects of Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction on the Acquisition of Different Strategies 84
Question 2-A 85
Question 2-B 86
Question 2-C. 88
3. The Frequency of Students’ Use of Reading Strategies before and after the Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction 98
Question 3-A 99
Question 3-B 100
Question 3-C 103
4. Students’ Responses to the Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction 112
Question 4-A 113
Question 4-B 115
Question 4-C. 117
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 127
Summary of the Major Findings 127
Discussion of the Findings 130
Limitation of the Study 131
Pedagogical Implications 133
Suggestions for Further Research 135
Appendix A The Consent for the Participants (Chinese) 150
Appendix B The Consent for the Participants (English) 151
Appendix C Class Schedule 152
Appendix D Samples of Teaching Materials 154
Appendix E Reading Comprehension Test 159
Appendix F Pre-Questionnaire (Chinese) 167
Appendix G Pre-Questionnaire (English) 169
Appendix H Post-Questionnaire (Chinese) 171
Appendix I Post-Questionnaire (English) 175
LIST OF TABLES
4.1 Summary of Participants’ Background 78
4.2 Participants’ Performance on Pre- and Post-test Reading Comprehension 80
4.3 High, Intermediate, and Low Proficient Level Students’ Performance on Reading Comprehension 81
4.4 Participants’ Performance of Pre- and Post-test Scores for Each Type of Strategy 86
4.5 The Participants’ Overall Performance on Different Types of Questions in the BCT of 2009 87
4.6 Descriptive Statistics of High Proficient Students’ Acquisition of Each Strategy 89
4.7 Descriptive statistics of intermediate proficient students’ acquisition of each strategy 90
4.8 Descriptive statistics of low proficient students’ acquisition of each strategy 92
4.9 Frequencies of the Students’ Strategy Use before and after the Instruction 102
4.10 Students’ Responses to the Easiest and Most Difficult Strategies after the Instruction……………………………………………………………………….108
4.11 Students’ Attitudes toward the Effects of the Whole Implementation of the Interactive Reading Strategy Instruction 114
4.12 Students’ Attitudes toward the Way to Learn the Strategies through the Six Teaching Methods 116
4.13 Ranking of the Percentages of Students’ Responses to the Most Effective Teaching Method 122
LIST OF FIGURES
3.1 The Procedures of Conducting the Study 56
4.1 The Participants’ Expected Performances for Each Type of Questions 97
4.2 High, Intermediate, and Low Proficient Students’ Performance for the Six Types of Questions before and after the Instruction 97
4.3 Students’ Responses to the Easiest and Most Difficult Strategies after the Instruction 108
4.4 Students’ Responses to the Most Effective Teaching Method 122
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