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系統識別號 U0026-0102201012283700
論文名稱(中文) 運用流行歌曲唱讀教學增進國小英語學習者常見字習得及口語流暢度之研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study of Enhancing EFL Young Learners’ Sight Vocabulary Acquisition and Oral Reading Fluency through Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature (on the job class)
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 陳怡君
研究生(英文) Yi-Chun Chen
學號 k2796104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 169頁
口試委員 口試委員-劉繼仁
口試委員-李敏瑜
指導教授-陳璧清
中文關鍵字 英語流行歌曲  流行歌曲唱讀教學  常見字習得  口語流暢度 
英文關鍵字 English pop songs  Pop song singing-reading instruction  Sight vocabulary acquisition  Oral reading fluency 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在探討英語流行歌曲對以英語為外語之學童其常見字及口語流暢度的學習效益。除此之外,文中亦探討不同英語能力學生在常見字習得及口語流暢度表現之差異。
此研究包括為期一學期的流行歌曲唱讀教學,筆試及口說測驗和兩份問卷調查。本研究的研究對象為台南市某公立國小三個四年級班級學生,共104位學童。教材為四首英語流行歌曲。為了使學生能積極參與學習,教師根據學生之英語能力將他們分組。學生首先獨自學習老師教授之內容,然後進行小組討論,最後再獨自完成學習單。在每兩首歌曲教學後,學生接受一小考並和組員上台表演。
量化資料的分析來自二次小考以及筆試和口試之前測、後測及延後測測驗。質化資料的分析來自問卷之開放問題。本研究之主要發現如下:
1. 整體而言,流行歌曲唱讀教學能顯著增進學生的常見字習得。然而,學生卻無法完全保留所學單字。
2. 整體而言,流行歌曲唱讀教學能顯著提升學生的朗讀準確度與流暢度。但學生無法完全維持正確及流利朗讀的能力。
3. 不同英語能力的學生在常見字習得上有不同的表現。透過流行歌曲唱讀教學,低分組學生受益最多,其次為中分組,最後為高分組。以學習保留而言,只有低分組學生無法保留其所學單字。
4. 依Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski, 2003)的流暢度分數顯示,中分組學生在朗讀流暢度的能力增進最多,其次為高分組,最後為低分組。從學習保留的角度來看,只有中分組學生無法維持其在朗讀流暢度的表現。
5. 流行歌曲唱讀教學能顯著改善學生對英語學習的態度,但相較之下,對學生英語能力的自評則影響較小。
6. 學生對流行歌曲唱讀教學持正面的評價,而且認為此教學活動不僅能引起他們的學習動機,也有助於英語學習。

總結而論,本研究結果顯示流行歌曲可成為促進以英語為外語之學童其常見字習得及口語流暢度的有力教學工具,此外學生對流行歌曲唱讀教學也能持正面態度。因此,本研究最後對以英語為外語的課堂教學中使用英語流行歌曲之教師,以及未來研究方向提出建議。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of English pop songs on EFL young learners’ sight vocabulary acquisition and oral reading fluency. It is also an attempt to compare the performance among students of different English proficiency levels on sight vocabulary growth and improvement of oral reading fluency.
This study includes a one-semester pop song singing-reading instruction, written and oral assessments, and two questionnaire surveys. The subjects are 104 fourth-grade students from three intact classes in an elementary school in Tainan City. Four English pop songs are chosen as the teaching materials. In order to engage the students in active learning, the teacher heterogeneously divides the students into small groups based on their English proficiency levels. The students work first individually, then in small group discussions, and finally individually again. After the instruction of every two songs, there are a quiz and a group performance. For data collection, the students’ performance on two quizzes, written and oral pretests, immediate posttests, and delayed posttests are analyzed quantitatively. As for students’ responses to the questionnaires, the data are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1. Overall, the pop song singing-reading instruction significantly enhances students’ sight vocabulary acquisition, although the learning retention is not obtained.
2. Generally, the pop song singing-reading instruction leads to significant gains in students’ oral reading performance in terms of accuracy and fluency. However, the students do not retain their ability to read accurately and fluently.
3. Students of different English proficiency level (EPL) groups account for different sight vocabulary gains. The low-EPL students significantly benefit most from the proposed instruction and the high-EPL ones the least. As for learning retention, only the low-EPL students do not retain their sight vocabulary acquisition.
4. According to the fluency scores measured by the Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski, 2003), the mid-EPL students improve the most in their ability to read fluently. The high-EPL students improve less and low-EPL ones the least. With regard to the retention, only the mid-EPL students do not obtain the retention.
5. After the pop song singing-reading instruction, students significantly improve their attitudes toward English learning. Nevertheless, the proposed instruction has a relatively smaller influence on students’ perception of their English competence.
6. The students respond positively to the pop song singing-reading instruction. They think the overall instruction not only motivates them to learn but also facilitates English learning.

In conclusion, this study indicates that pop songs can be a powerful pedagogical tool to improve EFL young learners’ sight vocabulary acquisition and oral reading fluency. In addition, students hold positive attitudes toward the proposed instruction. Thus, implications for the use of English pop songs in the EFL classroom and suggestions for future research are provided in the end.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xiii
List of Figures xvi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Motivation and Background 1
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 8
Limitations of the Study 9
Definition of Terms 10

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 14
Sight Words and Learning to Read 14
Significance of Sight Words in Early Reading 15
Theoretical Account of Word Recognition 17
Importance of Automatic Word Recognition 22
Implication for Teaching Sight Words 23
Oral Reading Fluency 25
Beneficial Roles of Oral Reading 25
Instructional Methods to Enhance Fluent Oral Reading 26
Evaluation of Oral Reading Fluency 31
Songs and Language Acquisition 33
Benefits of Teaching Songs 34
Features of Pop Songs 38
Pop Song Instruction in the EFL Classroom 40
Teaching Songs through Multimedia 42
Cooperative Learning 44
Theoretical Foundation of Cooperative Learning 46
Essential Attributes of Cooperative Learning 48
Cooperative Learning and Language Acquisition 49
Summary 51

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 54
Pilot Study 54
Discussion of Results of the Pilot Study 55
Overview of the Present Study 57
Subjects 59
Materials and Instruments 60
Materials 61
Written Test and Oral Reading Test 64
Questionnaires 66
Procedures 67
Data Analysis 70
A Quantitative Analysis 70
A Qualitative Analysis 72
The Summary of the Study Design 72

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 76
Overview 76
1. The Effectiveness of Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction on Students’ Sight Word Acquisition 81
Question 1-A 81
Question 1-B 83
Discussion 84
2. The Effectiveness of Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction on Students’ Oral Reading Performance 85
Question 2-A 85
Question 2-B 86
Question 2-C 87
Question 2-D 88
Discussion 89
3. The Results of Students’ Sight Vocabulary Acquisition in the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction among Students of Different English Proficiency Levels 89
Question 3-A 89
Question 3-B 93
Discussion 94
4. The Improvement of Oral Reading Fluency in the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction among Students of Different English Proficiency Levels 96
Question 4-A 96
Question 4-B 98
Discussion 100
5. Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning and Perceptions on Their Own English Competence 101
Question 5-A 101
Question 5-B 105
Discussion 109
6. Students’ Responses toward the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction 110
Question 6-A 110
Question 6-B 111
Question 6-C 113
Question 6-D 114
Question 6-E 115
Discussion 118

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 120
Summary of the Major Findings 120
Pedagogical Implications 124
Suggestions for Future Research 127

REFERENCES 130

APPENDIXES 145
APPENDIX A: The Consent for the Subjects 145
APPENDIX B: The Class Schedule 146
APPENDIX C: The Questionnaire “Elementary School Children’s Attitudes toward English Learning and Perspectives on English Competence (Q-AP)” 150
APPENDIX D: The Questionnaire “Elementary School Children’s Attitudes toward English Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction (Q-PS)” 152
APPENDIX E: Sight Words Test 154
APPENDIX F: Oral Reading Test 155
APPENDIX G: Quiz 1 156
APPENDIX H: Quiz 2 157
APPENDIX I: Group Worksheet of the First Song 158
APPENDIX J: Group Worksheet of the Second Song 159
APPENDIX K: Group Worksheet of the Third Song 160
APPENDIX L: Group Worksheet of the Fourth Song 161
APPENDIX M: Individual Worksheet of the First Song 162
APPENDIX N: Individual Worksheet of the Second Song 163
APPENDIX O: Individual Worksheet of the Third Song 164
APPENDIX P: Individual Worksheet of the Fourth Song 165
APPENDIX Q: Target Sight Word List 166
APPENDIX R: Details for Students’ Responses toward the Open-ended Questions 167
APPENDIX S: Multidimensional Fluency Scale 169

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
2.1 Studies on Pop Song Instruction in Taiwan 41
3.1 Websites of the Four Songs 62
3.2 The Summary of the Study Design 73
4.1 Summary of Respondents’ Demographic Data 79
4.2 The Scores of Four Abilities Students Thought They Had 80
4.3 The Numbers of Students in the Six Score Ranges for Each Quiz 82
4.4 Comparison of the Results of the Written Pretest and Immediate Posttest 83
4.5 Comparison of the Results of the Written Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest 84
4.6 Comparisons of Oral Reading Accuracy within Three Oral Tests 86
4.7 Comparisons of Oral Reading Fluency within Three Oral Tests 88
4.8 Mean Score (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of Each Quiz for Students of Different EPL Groups 91
4.9 Mean Difference (MD) and Standard Deviation (SD) of Each Written Paired-Tests for Students of Different EPL Groups 92
4.10 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Written Pretest and Immediate Posttest among Three EPL Groups 92
4.11 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Written Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest among Three EPL Groups 94
4.12 Mean Score (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of the Three Oral Reading Tests for Students of Different EPL Groups 97
4.13 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Oral Pretest and Immediate Posttest among Three EPL Groups 98
4.14 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Oral Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest among Three EPL Groups 99
4.15 Comparison of the Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning between the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 103
4.16 Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning in the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 104
4.17 Comparison of the Students’ Perspectives on Their English Competence between the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 107
4.18 Students’ Perspectives on Their English Competence in the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 108
4.19 Students’ Motivation toward English Learning 111
4.20 Students’ Perceptions on the Effects of Pop Songs 112
4.21 Students’ Responses to the Presentation of Teaching Materials 113
4.22 Students’ Responses to the Cooperative Group Learning 115
4.23 Ranking of the Student Responses to the Activities of Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction 116
4.24 Ranking of Students’ Favorite Selected Songs 117

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
2.1 Illustration of the dual-route theory of word recognition 18
3.1 A flow chart of the study procedures
69


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