||A Study of Enhancing EFL Young Learners’ Sight Vocabulary Acquisition and Oral Reading Fluency through Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature (on the job class)
English pop songs
Pop song singing-reading instruction
Sight vocabulary acquisition
Oral reading fluency
4. 依Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski, 2003)的流暢度分數顯示，中分組學生在朗讀流暢度的能力增進最多，其次為高分組，最後為低分組。從學習保留的角度來看，只有中分組學生無法維持其在朗讀流暢度的表現。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of English pop songs on EFL young learners’ sight vocabulary acquisition and oral reading fluency. It is also an attempt to compare the performance among students of different English proficiency levels on sight vocabulary growth and improvement of oral reading fluency.
This study includes a one-semester pop song singing-reading instruction, written and oral assessments, and two questionnaire surveys. The subjects are 104 fourth-grade students from three intact classes in an elementary school in Tainan City. Four English pop songs are chosen as the teaching materials. In order to engage the students in active learning, the teacher heterogeneously divides the students into small groups based on their English proficiency levels. The students work first individually, then in small group discussions, and finally individually again. After the instruction of every two songs, there are a quiz and a group performance. For data collection, the students’ performance on two quizzes, written and oral pretests, immediate posttests, and delayed posttests are analyzed quantitatively. As for students’ responses to the questionnaires, the data are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1. Overall, the pop song singing-reading instruction significantly enhances students’ sight vocabulary acquisition, although the learning retention is not obtained.
2. Generally, the pop song singing-reading instruction leads to significant gains in students’ oral reading performance in terms of accuracy and fluency. However, the students do not retain their ability to read accurately and fluently.
3. Students of different English proficiency level (EPL) groups account for different sight vocabulary gains. The low-EPL students significantly benefit most from the proposed instruction and the high-EPL ones the least. As for learning retention, only the low-EPL students do not retain their sight vocabulary acquisition.
4. According to the fluency scores measured by the Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski, 2003), the mid-EPL students improve the most in their ability to read fluently. The high-EPL students improve less and low-EPL ones the least. With regard to the retention, only the mid-EPL students do not obtain the retention.
5. After the pop song singing-reading instruction, students significantly improve their attitudes toward English learning. Nevertheless, the proposed instruction has a relatively smaller influence on students’ perception of their English competence.
6. The students respond positively to the pop song singing-reading instruction. They think the overall instruction not only motivates them to learn but also facilitates English learning.
In conclusion, this study indicates that pop songs can be a powerful pedagogical tool to improve EFL young learners’ sight vocabulary acquisition and oral reading fluency. In addition, students hold positive attitudes toward the proposed instruction. Thus, implications for the use of English pop songs in the EFL classroom and suggestions for future research are provided in the end.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iii
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xiii
List of Figures xvi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Motivation and Background 1
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 8
Limitations of the Study 9
Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 14
Sight Words and Learning to Read 14
Significance of Sight Words in Early Reading 15
Theoretical Account of Word Recognition 17
Importance of Automatic Word Recognition 22
Implication for Teaching Sight Words 23
Oral Reading Fluency 25
Beneficial Roles of Oral Reading 25
Instructional Methods to Enhance Fluent Oral Reading 26
Evaluation of Oral Reading Fluency 31
Songs and Language Acquisition 33
Benefits of Teaching Songs 34
Features of Pop Songs 38
Pop Song Instruction in the EFL Classroom 40
Teaching Songs through Multimedia 42
Cooperative Learning 44
Theoretical Foundation of Cooperative Learning 46
Essential Attributes of Cooperative Learning 48
Cooperative Learning and Language Acquisition 49
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 54
Pilot Study 54
Discussion of Results of the Pilot Study 55
Overview of the Present Study 57
Materials and Instruments 60
Written Test and Oral Reading Test 64
Data Analysis 70
A Quantitative Analysis 70
A Qualitative Analysis 72
The Summary of the Study Design 72
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 76
1. The Effectiveness of Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction on Students’ Sight Word Acquisition 81
Question 1-A 81
Question 1-B 83
2. The Effectiveness of Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction on Students’ Oral Reading Performance 85
Question 2-A 85
Question 2-B 86
Question 2-C 87
Question 2-D 88
3. The Results of Students’ Sight Vocabulary Acquisition in the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction among Students of Different English Proficiency Levels 89
Question 3-A 89
Question 3-B 93
4. The Improvement of Oral Reading Fluency in the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction among Students of Different English Proficiency Levels 96
Question 4-A 96
Question 4-B 98
5. Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning and Perceptions on Their Own English Competence 101
Question 5-A 101
Question 5-B 105
6. Students’ Responses toward the Pop Song Singing-reading Instruction 110
Question 6-A 110
Question 6-B 111
Question 6-C 113
Question 6-D 114
Question 6-E 115
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 120
Summary of the Major Findings 120
Pedagogical Implications 124
Suggestions for Future Research 127
APPENDIX A: The Consent for the Subjects 145
APPENDIX B: The Class Schedule 146
APPENDIX C: The Questionnaire “Elementary School Children’s Attitudes toward English Learning and Perspectives on English Competence (Q-AP)” 150
APPENDIX D: The Questionnaire “Elementary School Children’s Attitudes toward English Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction (Q-PS)” 152
APPENDIX E: Sight Words Test 154
APPENDIX F: Oral Reading Test 155
APPENDIX G: Quiz 1 156
APPENDIX H: Quiz 2 157
APPENDIX I: Group Worksheet of the First Song 158
APPENDIX J: Group Worksheet of the Second Song 159
APPENDIX K: Group Worksheet of the Third Song 160
APPENDIX L: Group Worksheet of the Fourth Song 161
APPENDIX M: Individual Worksheet of the First Song 162
APPENDIX N: Individual Worksheet of the Second Song 163
APPENDIX O: Individual Worksheet of the Third Song 164
APPENDIX P: Individual Worksheet of the Fourth Song 165
APPENDIX Q: Target Sight Word List 166
APPENDIX R: Details for Students’ Responses toward the Open-ended Questions 167
APPENDIX S: Multidimensional Fluency Scale 169
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Studies on Pop Song Instruction in Taiwan 41
3.1 Websites of the Four Songs 62
3.2 The Summary of the Study Design 73
4.1 Summary of Respondents’ Demographic Data 79
4.2 The Scores of Four Abilities Students Thought They Had 80
4.3 The Numbers of Students in the Six Score Ranges for Each Quiz 82
4.4 Comparison of the Results of the Written Pretest and Immediate Posttest 83
4.5 Comparison of the Results of the Written Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest 84
4.6 Comparisons of Oral Reading Accuracy within Three Oral Tests 86
4.7 Comparisons of Oral Reading Fluency within Three Oral Tests 88
4.8 Mean Score (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of Each Quiz for Students of Different EPL Groups 91
4.9 Mean Difference (MD) and Standard Deviation (SD) of Each Written Paired-Tests for Students of Different EPL Groups 92
4.10 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Written Pretest and Immediate Posttest among Three EPL Groups 92
4.11 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Written Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest among Three EPL Groups 94
4.12 Mean Score (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) of the Three Oral Reading Tests for Students of Different EPL Groups 97
4.13 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Oral Pretest and Immediate Posttest among Three EPL Groups 98
4.14 One-Way ANOVA for Mean Differences between Oral Immediate Posttest and Delayed Posttest among Three EPL Groups 99
4.15 Comparison of the Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning between the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 103
4.16 Students’ Attitudes toward English Learning in the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 104
4.17 Comparison of the Students’ Perspectives on Their English Competence between the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 107
4.18 Students’ Perspectives on Their English Competence in the Pre-study and Post-study of the Q-AP 108
4.19 Students’ Motivation toward English Learning 111
4.20 Students’ Perceptions on the Effects of Pop Songs 112
4.21 Students’ Responses to the Presentation of Teaching Materials 113
4.22 Students’ Responses to the Cooperative Group Learning 115
4.23 Ranking of the Student Responses to the Activities of Pop Song Singing-Reading Instruction 116
4.24 Ranking of Students’ Favorite Selected Songs 117
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Illustration of the dual-route theory of word recognition 18
3.1 A flow chart of the study procedures
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Alexander, J. E., & Heathington, B. S. (1988). Assessing and correcting classroom reading problems. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Anton, R. J. (1990). Combining singing and psychology. Hispania, 73(4), 1166-1170.
Bear, D. R., Helman, L., Templeton. S., Invernizzi, M., & Johnston, F. (2007). Words their way with English learners: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Beasley, R. E., & Chuang, Y. (2005). The effects of web-based American music, lyrics, definitions, and explanations on Taiwanese ESL learners. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 34(4), 461-471.
Blevins, W. (2001). Teaching phonics & word study in the intermediate graders: A complete sourcebook. New York: Scholastic Inc.
Brown, R., & Brown, N. (1997). Use songs to teach. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13(4), 349-355.
Bryant P., Bradley L., MacLean, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Nursery rhymes, phonological skills and reading. Journal of Children Language, 16(2), 407-428.
Cakir, A. (1999). Musical activities for young learners of EFL. The Internet TESL Journal, 5(11). Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Cakir-MusicalActivities.html
Chang, S. C. (2008). The effects of computer-assisted multimedia English pop song instruction on elementary school students’ motivation and achievements in their English acquisition. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Chao, J. A. (2006). Effects of reading vocabulary aloud on the English learning and attitudes of EFL elementary school low achievers. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Chen, H. C., & Chu, H. Y. (2004). Incorporating cooperative learning into the teaching and designing materials for mixed-ability classes. Proceedings of the thirteenth international symposium on English teaching (pp. 293-301). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Chen, H. C., & Juola, J. F. (1982). Dimensions of lexical coding in Chinese and English. Memory & Cognition, 10(3), 216-224.
Chen, P. F. (2009). A study of facilitating EFL young learners’ vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension through animated picture books and cooperative story mapping instruction (CoSM). Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Chen, W. H. (2004). Effects of jazz chant instruction on English learning for vocational high school students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Chen, W. H. (2008). An action research on pop songs integrated into the sight word instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, Fo Guang University, Yilan, Taiwan.
Cheung, C. K. (2001). The use of popular culture as a stimulus to motivate secondary students’ English learning in Hong Kong. ELT Journal, 55(1), 55-61.
Coelho, E. (1992). Jigsaw: Integrating language and content. In C. Kessler (Ed.), Cooperative language learning (pp. 129-152). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Cohen, E. G. (1994). Designing group work: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Coromina, I. S. (1993). An original approach to the teaching of songs in the classroom. English Teaching Forum, 31(3), 27-28.
Cullen, B. (1999). Song dictation. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Cullen-SongDictation.html
Davidson, N., & Worsham, T. (1992). Introduction Hotsicle—Higher order thinking skills in cooperative learning environments. In N. Davidson, & T. Worsham (Eds.), Enhancing thinking through cooperative learning (pp. xi-xx). New York: Teachers College Press.
Delany, M. (2006). Fluency strategies for struggling readers. New York: Scholastic.
Domoney, L., & Harri, S. (1993). Justified and ancient: Pop music in EFL classrooms. ELT Journal, 47(3), 234-241.
Dowhower, S. L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers’ fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4), 389-406.
Ehri, L. C. (1992). Reconceptualizing the development of sight word reading and its relationship to reading. In P. B. Gough, L. C., Ehri, & R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition (pp. 107-143). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ehri, L. C. (1995). Phrases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(2), 116-125.
Ehri, L. C. (2005). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167-188.
Ehri, L. C., & Wilce, L. S. (1985). Movement into reading: Is the first stage of printed word learning visual or phonetic? Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (2), 163-179.
Falioni, J. W. (1993). Music as means to enhance cultural awareness and literacy in the foreign language classroom. Mid-Atlantic Journal of Foreign Language Pedagogy, 7, 97-108. (Eric Document Reproduction No. ED355 796)
Fields, M. A., Groth, L. A., & Spangler, K. L. (2008). Let's begin reading right: A developmental approach to emergent literacy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Fisher, D. (2001). Early language learning with and without music. Reading Horizons, 42(1), 39-49.
Fox, B. J. (2008). Word identification strategies: Building phonics into a classroom reading program. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-256.
Garza, T. J. (1991). Evaluating the use of captioned video materials in advanced foreign language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 24(3), 239-258.
Garza, T. J. (1994). Beyond MTV: Music videos as foreign language text. Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning, 2, 106-110.
Gillon, G. T. (2004). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406.
Griffin, S. M. (1992). Reading aloud. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 784-787.
Harp, B. (1988). When the principal asks: "Why are your kids singing during reading time?”, The Reading Teacher, 41(4), 454-456.
Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental & remedial methods. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Hayes, E. B. (1988). Encoding strategies used by native and non-native readers of Chinese Mandarin. The Modern Language Journal, 72(2), 188-195.
Helman, L. A., & Burns, M. K. (2008). What does oral language have to do with it? Helping young English-language learners acquire a sight word vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 62(1), 14-19.
Hoffman, J. V., & Isaacs, M. E. (1991). Developing fluency through restructuring the task of guided oral reading. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 185-194.
Huang, K. W. (2006). Applying cooperative learning in the EFL elementary classroom: Development and effects- the example of the sixth graders of Pingtung Country. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, Taiwan.
Huang, S. (2002). A study on the multi-media application in English co-operative learning of 5th graders at elementary schools. Unpublished master’s thesis. Nation Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Huang, S. F. (2007). Research on teaching songs and chants' impact upon elementary school students' attitude toward morning English TV program. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714.
Hus, C. Y. (2006). The impact of English picture storybook reading aloud on word recognition, reading comprehension, and learning attitudes in fourth-graders. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Johnson, D. W. (2003). Social interdependence: Interrelationships among theory, research, and practice. American Psychologist, 58(11), 934-945.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2003). Student motivation in co-operative group. In R. M. Gillies & A. F. Ashman. (Eds.), Co-operative learning: The social and intellectual outcomes of learning in groups (pp. 136-176). London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Kagan, S. (1995). We can talk: Cooperative learning in the elementary ESL classroom. Eric Clearinghouse on Language and Linguistics, ED 382035.
Kailani, T. Z. (1998). Reading aloud in EFL revised. Reading in a Foreign Language, 12 (1), 281-294.
Koda, K. (1987). Cognitive transfer in second language reading. In J. Devine, P. L. Carrell, & D. E. Esky, (Eds.), Research in reading in English as a second language (pp. 127-144). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Koda, K. (1996). L2 word recognition research: A critical review. The Modern Language Journal, 80(4), 450-460.
Krashen, S. D. (1987). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International.
Lee, C. L. (2003). Promoting reading comprehension ability and vocabulary learning through collaborative strategic reading. Unpublished master’s thesis, Taipei Municipal University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Lee, M. I. (2005). The effects of English songs in multimedia-based system on motivation and achievement of elementary students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, Taiwan.
Leibert, R. E. (1991). The Dolch List revisited: An analysis of pupil responses then and now. Reading Horizons, 31(3), 217-227.
Lems, K. (1996). For a song: music across the ESL curriculum. Paper presented at the TESOL Conference in National-Louis University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED396 524)
Li, S. C. (2003). A study of the effects of reading fairy tales aloud on junior high school students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Liang, T. (2002). Implementing cooperative learning in EFL teaching: Process and effects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Lin, H. L. (2004). Teaching English nursery rhymes to second graders: An action research. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taichung University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Liu, C. Y. (2006). Analysis of the songs in elementary school English textbooks. Unpublished master’s thesis, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan.
Liu, T. W. (2002). Junior high school English teachers’ attitudes toward and strategies for teaching English songs. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
McCormick, S., & Becker, E. Z. (1996). Word recognition and word identification: A review of research on effective instructional practices with learning disabled students. Reading Research and Instruction, 36(1), 5-17.
McLaughlin, B. (1990). Restructuring. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 113-128.
Medina, S. L. (1990). The effects of music upon second language vocabulary acquisition. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to speakers of other languages. San Francisco, CA. March. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED352 834)
Medina, S. L. (2003). Acquiring vocabulary through story-songs. MEXTESOL Journal, 26(1), 13-17.
Mora, C. F. (2000). Foreign language acquisition and melody singing. ELT Journal, 54(2), 146-152.
Murphey, T. (1990). The song stuck in my head phenomenon: A melodic Din in the LAD? System, 18(1), 53-64.
Murphey, T. (1992a). The discourse of pop songs. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 770-774.
Murphey, T. (1992b). Music & song. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Murphey, T., & Alber, J. L. (1985). A pop song register: The motherese of adolescents as affective foreigner talk. TESOL Quarterly, 19(4), 793-795.
Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Nastasi, B. K., & Clements, D. H. (1991). Research on cooperative learning: Implications for practice. School Psychology Review, 20(1), 110-131.
Nation, P., & Newton, J. (1997). Teaching vocabulary. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition: A rationale for pedagogy (pp. 238-254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O’Connor, R. E. (2007). Teaching word recognition: Effective strategies for students with learning difficulties. New York: Guilford Press.
Olsen, R. E., & Kagan, S. (1992). About cooperative learning. In C. Kessler (Ed.), Cooperative language learning (pp. 1-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.
Prescott-Griffin, M. L., & Witherell, N. L. (2004). Fluency in focus: Comprehension strategies for all young readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Rasinski, T. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 704-706.
Rasinski, T. V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.
Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader: Oral reading strategies for building word recognition, fluency, and comprehension. New York: Scholastic.
Samuels, S. J. (1997). “The method of repeated readings.” RT Classic. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376-381.
Saville-Troike, M. (1973). Reading and the audio-lingual method. TESOL Quarterly, 7(4), 395-405.
Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1976). Controlled and automatic human information processing: Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84 (1), 1-66.
Schoepp, K. (2001). Reasons for using songs in the ESL/EFL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 7(2). Retrieved May 5, 2008, from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Schoepp-Songs.html
Sha, B. L. (2009). The effect of cooperative learning on children's self-esteem, classroom climate and academic achievement. Unpublished master’s thesis, Dayeh Unversity, Changhua, Taiwan.
Shieh, S. R. (2005). English teachers’ understanding of word recognition skills and instructional practice in classroom. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Simpson, J. M. (2000). Practice multiple intelligences in EFL class. TESOL Journal, 9(1), 32.
Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(1), 43-69.
Stanovich, K. E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.
Stuart, M. (1990). Factors influencing word recognition in pre-reading children. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 135-146.
Stuart, M., Masterson, J., & Dixon, M. (2000). Spongelike acquisition of sight vocabulary in beginning readers? Journal of Research in Reading, 23(1), 12-27.
Tan, C. L. (2006). A comparative study of responses to English singing instruction in constructivism for elementary school teachers and students in Kaohsiung City. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Therrien, W. J. (2004). Fluency and comprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education: RASE, 25(4), 252-261.
Thomas, C., & Richard, G. (1984). The role of songs in the foreign language classroom. OMLTA Journal, 28-32.
Trapp, E. A. (1991). Break down inhibitions and build up understanding with music, music, music. Hispania, 74(2), 437-438.
Treiman, R. (2000). The foundations of literacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(3), 89-92.
Tsai, Y. J. (2008). A case study of cultivating junior high students’ English reading competency through cooperative strategy-based instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Turpie, J. J., & Paratore, J. R. (1994). Using repeated reading to promote reading success in a heterogeneously grouped first grade. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED381 774)
Vacca, J. L., Vacca, R. T., & Gove, M. K. (2000). Reading and learning to read. New York: Longman.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Weaver, C. (1994). Reading process and practice: From socio-psycholinguistics to whole language. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Webb, N., Nemer, K., Chizhik, A., & Sugrue, B. (1998). Equity issues in collaborative group assessment: Group composition and performance. American Educational Research Journal, 35(4), 607-651.
Wen, S. H. (2009). An action research of using English pop songs as teaching material to improve English learning attitude and efficiency for grade six students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Willson, V. L., & Rupley, W. H. (1993). Structural components of single word recognition: Activation of orthographic, meaning, and phonological processors. Reading Research and Instruction, 32(4), 33-45.
Wu, J. (2008). A study on sight words teaching strategies and learning website: Fifth grade students as example. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Yang, L. C. (2002). Effects of an English singing program on English learning for TC and non-TC learners in junior high school. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Yang, Y. L. (2006). A study of oral reading fluency: The implementation of readers theater in an EFL elementary school. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Yang, Y. L.(楊懿麗)(2001)。語言學習的環境與機制：也談國小英語教學。英語教學，26(1)，16-26。
Young, Y. C. (楊耀琦)(2006)。 閱讀初階—220個英文常用字教學。台北市: 東西出版事業股份有限公司。
Zutell, J., & Rasinski, T. V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their students’ oral reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 211-217.