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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911502976
論文名稱(中文) 半導體工廠火災防救管理之探討
論文名稱(英文) The Study of Fire Prevention Disaster Management for Semiconductor Factories
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工學院工程管理碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Engineering Management
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 邱信明
學號 n0791121
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-01-16
論文頁數 138頁
口試委員 指導教授-蕭飛賓
口試委員-李再長
口試委員-張守進
關鍵字(中) 火災預防
緊急應變
關鍵字(英) fire prevention
emergency response
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘 要
  半導體製造是一種高產值的產業,也是我國經濟成長的重要產業之一,由於建廠及設備投昂貴,並有使用高危險性的氣體及特殊化學品之特性,一旦發生重大工安事故或天然災害,其損失及影響深遠,輕則損失商機,嚴重者可能導致公司面臨關廠或倒閉危機。因此,建立一套可行且實用的災害防救管理,以降低災害所造成的嚴重損失,是管理損失控制的一個重要課題。本研究以損失控制之概念為基礎,提出半導體工廠火災預防、防護、緊急應變等層面之管理策略,並歸納近年來國內半導體工廠火災發生原因,提出防救災之缺失及建議供業界參考。
英文摘要 Abstract
 Semiconductor manufacturing is not only a high value industry but also an important part in the economic growth in Taiwan. It is characterized by heavy investment in building facilities and equipment that use special gases and hazardous chemicals. As such, incidents caused by major accidents or natural disasters can have a potentially far-reaching negative impact. Affected market conditions from facility disasters may even force companies out of business. Therefore, the establishment of a workable and functional prevention disaster management plan could help to reduce any losses from disasters. Such a plan would constitute a major element of a loss control program. This study is based on the concepts of loss control to provide the management strategies of fire prevention, protection, emergency response and disaster recovery for semiconductor factories. Besides, it generalizes the fire causes from recent fire disasters in semiconductor factories of Taiwan to provide some shortcomings and suggestions for industry reference.
論文目次 目 錄
摘要………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract…………………………………………………………………II
誌謝………………………………………………………………………III
目錄………………………………………………………………………IV
表目錄……………………………………………………………………VI
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………VII
中英文縮寫全名對照……………………………………………………VIII
第一章緒論………………………………………………………………1
 1.1前言………………………………………………………………1
 1.2研究動機…………………………………………………………2
 1.3研究目的…………………………………………………………3
 1.4研究範圍與限制…………………………………………………3
 1.5研究方法與流程…………………………………………………4
第二章文獻探討………………………………………………………6
 2.1半導體產業概要介紹…………………………………………6
 2.2半導體製造流程概述…………………………………………10
 2.3半導體產業製程危害特性……………………………………17
 2.4半導體工廠火災成因探討……………………………………22
 2.5國內外災害防救管理之探討…………………………………34
第三章半導體火災防救管理策略……………………………………56
 3.1前言……………………………………………………………56
 3.2災害預防規劃…………………………………………………57
 3.3災害防護規劃…………………………………………………81
 3.4災害緊急應變規劃……………………………………………88
 3.5結語……………………………………………………………115
第四章案例分析………………………………………………………116
第五章結論與建議……………………………………………………124
 5.1結論……………………………………………………………124
 5.2建議……………………………………………………………128
 5.3未來研究方向…………………………………………………130
參考文獻………………………………………………………………132
自述……………………………………………………………………138
參考文獻 參考文獻
一、中文部份
[1]工業技術研究院.「市場與技術分析」.1998 年半導體工業年鑑,1998。
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[3]台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司,「台南廠區擴廠計畫環境影響說明書」,May 2001。
[4]行政院勞委會,「危險物有害物危險性工作場所審查及檢查研討會資料」,頁41,2000。
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[6]施邦築、熊光華,「大規模災害救災標準作業系統建立」,內政部消防署委託研究案成果報告,2002。
[7]吳秀東,「透過OHSAS18001 的建置評估半導體廠之潛在危害風險」.工業污染防治報導,13,第1~3頁,2000。
[8]岡部洋一著,陳連春譯,「圖解半導體與IC」,建興出版社,第4~5頁,1999。
[9]林博彥,「我國災變管理政策執行過程之研究」,台灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文,第5~8頁,1994。
[10]洪根強、楊明枝、曾傳銘,「如何擬定緊急應變計畫」.工業安全衛生管理與實務,台北:揚智文化,頁250~280,1998。
[11]侯璿,「半導體製程設備拆移機風險管理研究」,交通大學研究所碩士論文,第6~8頁,2003。
[12]徐啟銘、周煌傑,「半導體業安全衛生問題淺論」,工業安全科技,28,第2~7頁,1998。
[13]陳火炎、熊光華,「防救災體系與計畫之資料蒐集及資料庫建立之研究」,內政部消防署專題研究報告書,1999。
[14]陳弘毅,「火災學」,鼎茂圖書,1996。
[15]梁杏娟,「我國緊急應變體系整建之研究—以九二一地震為例」,國力暨南國際大學公共行政與政策研究所碩士論文,頁9,2001。
[16]陳亮全等,「新竹科學園區重大火災預防措施之評估」,新竹科學工業園區委托研究,1998。
[17]莊達人,「VLSI製造技術」,高利圖書有限公司,1996。
[18]張一岑,「化工製程安全管理」,頁32~34,1995。
[19]詹中原,「美國政府之危機管理:組織發展與政策架構」,美國月刊,第五卷五期,頁96~105,1990。
[20]趙鋼,「災難事故危機管理」,研考報導,第43 卷,頁52~53,1998。
[21]經濟部工業局,「緊急應變應用技術手冊」,台北:中國技術服務社,1995。
[22]閻立泰,「政府與民眾危機溝通知研究— 九二一個案分析」,政大公共行政所,碩士論文,頁39~40,2001。
[23]鄧明忠,「由無塵室的工作環境談安全」,工業安全科技,22期,第28~31頁,1997。
[24]鄭謀至,「如何擬訂緊急應變計畫」.工業安全衛生月刊,36期,頁33~44,1992。
[25]劉憶蓉、盧哲明、陳政任、鄭功耀,「半導體WCVD製程尾氣分析與危害評估」,工業安全衛生研討會,經濟部工業局/工研院工安衛中心主辦,2000。
[26]謝正倫、施邦築,「鄉鎮縣﹙市﹚基層地區災害防救工作之強化與落實」,第一屆全國防災學術研討會論文集,頁29,1997。
[27]顏登通,「潔淨室之設計與管理」,全華科技圖書股份有限公司,1997。
[28]鄧家駒,「風險管理」,台北:華泰,頁29 ~37,1998。
[29]Norman Augustine 著,吳佩玲譯,「危機管理」,天下文化,頁10~31,2001。


二、英文部分

[30]Acron, W. A., Code Compliance for Advanced Technology Facilities – A Comprehensive Guide for Semiconductor and Other Hazardous Occupancies, Noyes, 1993.
[31]American Society of Safety Engineers, Dictionary of Terms Used in the Safety Profession (3rd ed.), Des Plaines, IL: ASSE, 16, 1988.
[32]Bolmen, J. R., Building and Fire Codes Impacting the Semiconductor Industry, Semiconductor Safety Handbook - Chapter 9, Noyes Publications. Library of Congress catalogue number: 97-24032. ISBN: 0-8155-1418-2, 1998.
[33]CCPS, Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 2nd ed., Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1992.
[34]Chen, J. R., Sources and Solutions of Fire and Explosion in Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes, 10th International Symposium on the Loss Prevention, Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Stockholm, Sweden, 2001.
[35]Crowl, D. A. and Louvar, J. F., Chemical Process Safety, Prentice-Hall, 1990.
[36]Electronic Industry Association of Japan (EIAJ), Past accidents by process, 1980-2000.
[37]Factory Mutual Research Co., Data Sheet 7-7/17-12, Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities, 1997.
[38]Factory Mutual Global 7-7, Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities, 2001.
[39]Godschalk, The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program: Scattered Spending. In Natural Hazard Mitigation: Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning, Washington, D.C., 1999.
[40]Herman, C., Some Consequences of Crisis Which Limit the Viability of Organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 8, pp. 61-82, 1963.
[41]Lee, G., Ohtani, H., Uehara, Y. and Aramaki, M., Experimental Study on Flammability Limit of a Chlorine Trifluoride/Dichlorosilane/ Nitrogen, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., pp. 192-195, 1992.
[42]Mayer, M. and Norman, A., The Handbook for Effective Emergency and Crisis Management, Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Health and Company, pp. 3-4, 1988.
[43]Mileti, D. S., Disaster by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry, 1999.
[44]NFPA 318, Standard for the Protection of Cleanrooms, National Fire Protection Association, 1995.
[45]Oklahoma State University, Incident Command System, Fire Protection Publication, 1980.
[46]Rosenthal, U., Crisis Decision Making in the Netherlands, Netherlands Journal of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 103-129, 1986.
[47]Seliger, J.S. and Simoneau, J. K., Emergency Preparedness, Disaster Planning for Health Facilities, 1986.
[48]Sze, S. M., VLSI Technology, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, p.127, 1988.
[49]Turner, B., Man Made Disasters, London: Wykenham, 1978.

三、網站部份

[50]http://www.cbs.state.or.us/external/osha/educate/training/pages/100xm6.html
[51]http://www.nfa.gov.tw/asp/history.aspx?pid=18

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 2 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200911510035
論文名稱(中文) 那淬松合併心理治療對預防酒癮復發的效果討論
論文名稱(英文) Effectiveness of Naltrexone Combined with Psychotherapy in the Relapse Prevention of Alcohol Dependence
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 94
學期 1
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 謝兆翔
學號 s8689405
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-01-17
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
口試委員-陸汝斌
召集委員-謝碧玲
關鍵字(中) 動機增強治療
認知行為治療
酒癮
那淬松
心理治療
復發預防
關鍵字(英) Motivational Enhancement Therapy
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Alcoholism
Naltrexone
Psychotherapy
Relapse Prevention
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景與目的:酒癮造成許多社會問題,也耗費相當高的社會成本;如何有效治療酒癮,並預防再度復發已是許多學者努力的重點。許多研究嘗試以藥物或心理治療的模式來降低酒癮復發率;目前已被支持使用的藥物;如:那淬松;而不同的心理治療如:支持性心理治療、認知行為治療、動機增強治療等,均被探討其在酒癮治療與復發預防上的成效。而進一步如何結合藥物與心理治療的問題,也持續被研究。由於那淬松對國人酒癮的療效研究資料仍不足;而且,從改變的歷程來看,動機增強治療結合認知行為治療會有較佳的效果。因此,本研究擬探討那淬松合併不同的心理治療模式在不同的療效指標上的效果。
研究方法:本研究使用次級資料研究法,資料庫來源取自柯慧貞等(民90)衛生署研究計劃中所搜集的資料。最初進入研究的249名受試者當中,經收案研究程序篩選後剩213 名(98.2%),再取至少完成治療八週以上者157 名(73.7%)為最後分析的個案。所有個案進入研究的第一週均使用安慰劑,同時使用測量工具收集治療前的飲酒行為。之後,隨機派入雙盲控制之那淬松組或安慰劑組,然後再將個案隨機分派至支持性心理治療組、認知行為治療組或動機增強加認知行為治療組。藥物治療與心理治療組別配對後,共分為「那淬松與支持性心理治療組」、「那淬松與認知行為治療組」、「那淬松與動機增強加認知行為治療組」、「安慰劑與支持性心理治療組」、「安慰劑與認知行為治療組」、「安慰劑與動機增強加認知行為治療組」等六組,再進行12 週治療,治療後並追蹤三個月。在治療進行的每一週及追蹤期的每個月均繼續收集其當時的飲酒行為。
研究結果:(一)治療期間:以三因子混合設計變異數分析(是否服用那淬松x三種心理治療x四個時間點:治療前,治療期第一至三個月)分析資料,結果發現:「飲酒量指標」和「飲酒天數指標」上,時間的主要效果達顯著:治療期的三個月均顯著比治療前佳;藥物治療與心理治療之主要效果與交互作用均未達顯著。以Kaplan-Meier生存分析進行六組之間「持續天數指標」上的比較,結果發現:六組之間均未達顯著。以卡方檢定進行六組之間在「人數比指標」上的比較,結果發現:不同的六組之間未達顯著差異。(二)追蹤期間:以三因子混合設計變異數分析(是否服用那淬松x三種心理治療x四個時間點:治療期最後一週,追蹤期第一至三個月)分析資料,結果發現:「每日平均飲酒量」上,時間的主要效果達顯著:治療期最後一週顯著比追蹤期第一至三個月高;藥物治療與心理治療之主要效果與交互作用均未達顯著。「每次平均飲酒量」上,時間的主要效果達顯著:治療期最後一週顯著比追蹤期第一至三個月低;藥物治療與心理治療之主要效果與交互作用均未達顯著。在「戒酒天數百分比」上,時間的主要效果達顯著:治療期最後一週顯著比追蹤期第一至三個月高,追蹤期第一個月顯著比第二個月高;藥物治療的主要效果達顯著:那淬松組顯著比安慰劑組低。在「重度飲酒天數百分比」上,時間的主要效果達顯著:治療期最後一週顯著比追蹤期第二至三個月低,追蹤期第一個月顯著比第三個月低;藥物治療與心理治療之主要效果與交互作用均未達顯著。以Kaplan-Meier生存分析進行六組之間在「持續天數指標」上的比較,結果發現:六組之間在「持續未飲酒天數」上未達顯著;在「持續未重度飲酒天數」上,「那淬松與支持性心理治療」比「那淬松與認知行為治療」和「安慰劑與支持性心理治療」佳,而「那淬松與認知行為治療」又比「安慰劑與支持性心理治療」佳。以卡方檢定進行六組之間在「人數比指標」上的比較,不同治療模式在「完全戒酒人數」上未達顯著差異;「未重度飲酒人數上」,「安慰劑與支持性心理治療」顯著低於「那淬松與支持性心理治療」和「安慰劑與認知行為治療」及「安慰劑與動機增強加認知行為治療」,「那淬松與認知行為治療」顯著低於「那淬松與支持性心理治療」。(三)在「重度飲酒天數百分比」上,雖然不同治療模式之間在治療期與追蹤期均未顯著差異,但「那淬松與支持性心理治療」在治療一開始的重度飲酒天數最低,但到治療結束後第三個月時已接近於一直最高的「安慰劑與支持性心理治療」;「那淬松與認知行為治療」在治療開始至治療後的第三個月之重度飲酒天數就一直維持在很低的狀態;「動機增強加認知行為治療組」雖然在治療開始時相當高,但隨著治療的進行至追蹤期均持續降低。
結論:所有的治療模式的治療介入均具有效果,在「飲酒量指標」上的效果至少可維持至治療結束後三個月,在「天數指標」上的效果至少可維持至治療結束後二個月。在「持續未重度飲酒天數」與「未重度飲酒人數」上,那淬松在治療結束後三個月的效果比其他治療模式佳。雖然研究結果只在時間因素上符合研究假設,而動機增強治療對於增加治療的順從性與參與治療動機的效果並未如同研究假設的結果。但本研究的結果仍可給國人在酒癮戒治與酒癮復發預防的治療模式的選擇上提供參考。
英文摘要 Objective:The Problem of Alcohol Dependence makes many severe influences and social cost. To mitigate Alcohol Dependence more efficiently and to prevent from the relapse is the focus of the recently researches. Many studies trying medication or psychotherapy intervention to decrease the relapse rate of Alcohol dependence, thus, Naltrexone, supportive psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational enhancement therapy etc. And further, the effectiveness of combining medication and psychotherapy has been exploring. Because of the effectiveness of the Naltrexone was not sufficiently enough in Taiwan, and the better effectiveness of motivational enhancement therapy to affect the course of changing. This study is planning to probe into the effectiveness of Naltrexone combining with different psychotherapy on different effectiveness indicator.
Method:This study cites a secondary data from Ko (2001) Research Project. There were 249 subjects participated, 213 subjects(98.2%) matched the of including and excluding criteria, 157 (73.7%) attended at least 8 weeks of therapy at the final. All the subjects had Placebo at the first week of the study, and measured their drinking consumptions before attend the therapy at the same time. The subjects had a double-blind design to assign to either Naltrexone or Placebo and randomly assigned with either supportive psychotherapy (SPT) or Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or Motivational- enhancement therapy (MET) with CBT. The subjects have 12-week treatment and 3 months flow-up. We concern about the drinking consumptions and the indicators of effectiveness in 12-week treatment and the follow-up period.
Result:1) At the period of treatment: The outcome of ‘consumption indicators’ and ‘drinking days indicators’ showed a main effect of time. All these indicators in three months of treatment were better than in the 90 days before treatment. No main effects and interactions among different medication and psychotherapy and time frame of these indicators in three months of treatment were seen. There were no significant differences among each group in the outcome of ‘maintenance days indicators’ and ‘survival counting indicators’ in three months of treatment. 2) At the period of follow-up: A main effect of time was found in the outcome of average drinks per day (ADD). The ADD of all the combinations of therapy in the last week of treatment was higher significantly than the ADD in the 3 months of follow-up. There was a significant difference was found at the main effect of time in the outcome of drinks per drinking day (DDD). The DDD of all the combinations of therapy in the last week of treatment was lower significantly than the DDD in the 3 months of follow-up. The outcome on the percentage of abstinent day (PAD) showed a main effect of time and medication. The PAD of all the combinations of therapy in the last week of treatment was higher significantly than the PAD in the 3 months of follow-up, and the PAD in the 1st month of follow-up was higher significantly than the PAD in the 2nd month of follow-up. The PAD of the Naltrexone groups was lower significantly than the PAD of the Placebo groups. The outcome on the percentage of heavy drinking day (PHD) showed a main effect of time and medication. The PHD of all the combinations of therapy in the last week of treatment was lower significantly than the PHD in the 2nd and 3rd months of follow-up, and the PHD in the 1st month of follow-up was lower significantly than the PHD in the 3rd month of follow-up. There was no significant difference on time to first drink among all six combinations of treatment. The subjects treated with Naltrexone with SPT took longer time to heavy drinking significantly than whom treated with Naltrexone with CBT and Placebo with SPT, and the time to first relapse of Naltrexone with CBT was longer significantly than Placebo with CBT. The number of subjects with complete abstinence showed no significant difference among all combinations of therapy. The number of subjects who never relapse, which with Placebo with SPT was lower significantly than which with Naltrexone with SPT, Placebo with CBT and Placebo with MET with CBT, and which with Naltrexone with CBT was lower significantly than which with Naltrexone with SPT. 3) Although, the PHD among the different combinations of therapy showed no significant differences in the period of treatment, Nalterexone with SPT could not maintain PHD from the lowest at the beginning of treatment till the 3rd month of follow-up, it almost near the highest PHD, which treated with Placebo with SPT. However, Nalrexone with CBT could maintain the lower PHD at the beginning of treatment till the 3rd month of follow-up. Whereas, MET with CBT showed the highest PHD at the beginning of treatment, but it had been getting more lower with the course of treatment even of follow-up.
.Conclusion: The all combinations of therapy had just the main effect of time in the period of treatment, matched the hypothesis of treatment intervention of this study , but MET didn’t show the significant effectiveness of motivation enhancement than other psychotherapy. Another result of this study is that Naltrexone seemed to show better effectiveness in PHD, but Nalrexone with CBT seemed to keep lower PHD till the 3rd month of follow-up, and MET with CBT seemed to keep decreasing PHD. These results still can offer various choice of therapy to the relapse prevention of alcohol dependence.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 ................................................................... 1
第一節 酒癮問題研究的重要性 ............................................................ 1
第二節 酒癮的治療模式 .................................................................. 2
一、藥物治療 ........................................................................ 2
二、心理治療 ..............................................................................4
三、藥物治療結合心理治療 ..................................................................5
第三節 酒癮治療療效指標 ....................................................................7
一、治療參與度與服藥順從性 ............................................................7
二、飲酒量 …................................................................................8
三、飲酒天數 ...............................................................................9
四、持續天數 ................................................................... 9
五、人數比例 ..............................................................................…10
六、飲酒慾........................................................................11
第四節 治療模式之療效研究 ............................................................ 12
一、藥物治療之療效研究 ..............................................................12
二、心理治療之療效研究 .................................................................. 14
三、藥物結合心理治療之療效研究 ...................................................... 15
第五節 研究目的與研究假設 ............................................................ 19
一、研究目的 .............................................................................. 19
二、研究假設 .............................................................................. 22
第二章 研究方法 ............................................................ 23
第一節 研究設計 ........................................................................ 23
第二節 研究對象 ........................................................................ 23
一、個案取樣 .............................................................................. 23
二、受試者人口學變項特性與追蹤狀況 ................................................ 24
第三節 研究流程 .............................................................................. 25
一、 研究分組 .............................................................................. 25
二、 研究步驟 .............................................................................. 25
第四節 研究工具 .............................................................................. 28
一、診斷工具 .............................................................................. 28
二、測量工具 .............................................................................. 28
第五節 統計分析 .............................................................................. 29
一、人口學變項之比較 .................................................................. 29
二、治療介入前之各種臨床特性 ...................................................... 29
三、治療參與度和服藥順從性 ............................................................ 30
四、治療期之各種療效指標 ............................................................ 30
五、追蹤期之各種療效指標 ............................................................ 32
第三章 研究結果 ...................................................................34
第一節 人口學變項與臨床特質分析 ........................................................34
一、六組於治療前在性別與婚姻狀態上的比較 .................................... 34
二、六組於治療前在年齡與教育年數上的比較 .................................... 34
三、六組於治療前在每日平均飲酒量、每次平均飲酒量上的比較 ............ 34
四、六組於治療前在飲酒天數百分比與重度飲酒天數百分比上的比較 … 34
第二節 治療參與程度與追蹤率 ............................................................ 36
一、六組在平均藥物治療週數與平均心理治療週數上的比較 .................. 36
二、六組在服藥順從性高於75%以上人數的比較 .................................... 36
第三節 治療期之各種療效指標 ............................................................ 38
一、每日平均飲酒量 ........................................................................ 38
二、每次平均飲酒量 ........................................................................ 38
三、戒酒天數百分比 ........................................................................ 38
四、重度飲酒天數百分比 ............................................................ 38
五、持續未飲酒天數 .................................................................. 41
六、持續未重度飲酒天數 ............................................................ 41
七、完全戒酒人數百分比 …............................................................. 41
八、未重度飲酒人數百分比 …............................................................. 41
第四節 追蹤期之各種療效指標 ............................................................ 45
一、每日平均飲酒量 ........................................................................ 45
二、每次平均飲酒量 ........................................................................ 45
三、戒酒天數百分比 ........................................................................ 45
四、重度飲酒天數百分比 …............................................................. 46
五、持續未飲酒天數 …................................................................... 46
六、持續未重度飲酒天數 …............................................................. 46
七、完全戒酒人數百分比 …............................................................. 47
八、未重度飲酒人數百分比 ….............................................................47
第四章 討論 .........................................................................52
第一節 本研究之主要發現與解釋 ...................................................... 52
一、人口學變項與臨床特性上的探討 ................................................ 52
二、治療參與程度與服藥順從性的探討 ................................................. 53
三、不同治療模式在飲酒量指標上的效果 .......................................... 54
四、不同治療模式在飲酒天數指標上的效果 ..........................................55
五、不同治療模式在持續天數指標上的效果 ...........................................59
六、不同治療模式在人數指標上的效果 .................................................59
第二節 本研究之限制與未來研究方向.....................................................61
一、樣本的限制 .......................................................................... 61
二、研究設計的限制 ........................................................................ 61
三、研究工具的限制 ........................................................................ 62
四、治療介入的效果限制 .................................................................. 62
五、統計分析方法的限制 .................................................................. 62
第三節 本研究之理論貢獻與應用價值 ................................................ 64
第五章 參考文獻 .............................................................................. 65
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911513302
論文名稱(中文) 藥師對門診高血壓老年病患跌倒預防及用藥知識衛教介入研究
論文名稱(英文) An Intervention Study on Knowledge of Falls Prevention and Drug Use in the Elderly Hypertensive Outpatients by a Pharmacist
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 臨床藥學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Clinical Pharmacy
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 石明麗
學號 s6692105
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-01
論文頁數 140頁
口試委員 指導教授-張慧真
指導教授-盧豐華
指導教授-高雅慧
口試委員-蔡瑞真
關鍵字(中) 藥師
跌倒預防
用藥知識
門診老年病患
降血壓藥
關鍵字(英) pharmacist
medication knowledge
antihypertensives
elderly outpatients
prevention of falls
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景:預防老人跌倒為國際公共衛生重要議題之一。至2004年台灣地區65歲以上老年人口已佔總人口比例的9.36%,而跌倒是台灣地區老人事故傷害死因之第二大原因,國內社區老人跌倒發生率高達15%至32%。老人跌倒之危險因子可分為外因性和內因性,外因性因子與環境因素有關;內因性因子則與老人的個人特質、疾病及藥品的使用因素有關,服用降血壓藥、抗憂鬱劑、利尿劑、安眠劑、精神用藥為容易導致跌倒之內因性因子。高血壓疾病居國人十大死因第十位,盛行率以老年人最高。因此本研究以藥師來執行衛教介入,探討門診高血壓老年病患預防跌倒之相關用藥知識的成效。

研究目的:(1)評估藥師介入對門診高血壓老年病患用藥知識的成效。(2)評估藥師介入對門診高血壓老年病患跌倒預防知識的成效。(3)分析造成門診高血壓老年病患跌倒之相關因素。

研究方法:本研究為同一組研究對象之事前事後比較設計,研究期間為2005年9月至12月,於國立成功大學醫學院附設醫院家庭醫學部門診進行收案及衛教,研究對象為65歲以上有使用降血壓藥之門診老年病患,採立意取樣方式。藥師採系統式的高血壓用藥及跌倒預防知識衛教方式,且研究對象於衛教前及之後四週,以結構式問卷進行用藥知識、跌倒預防知識及人口學特徵之訪談。

研究結果:研究對象共110位完成第二次訪談,訪談完成率為84.6%。藥師衛教介入後,高血壓老年病患服藥自我報告簡易量表總分平均由3.3±0.8提升為3.9±0.3;用藥知識評估總分平均由8.8±1.1提升為9.8±0.4;跌倒預防知識評估總分平均由12.4±1.4提升為14.4±0.9(p<0.001)。這些門診高血壓老年病患過去一年跌倒發生率為31%。經逐步邏輯複迴歸分析,顯示視力不清楚、使用降血糖用藥及benzodiazepines用藥為顯著跌倒相關因素(p<0.05)。

結論:藥師衛教介入可以增進高血壓老年病患的用藥及跌倒預防知識,與改善服藥順從性。跌倒相關危險因子的衛教需著重於視力不清楚、使用降血糖用藥及benzodiazepines用藥方面。



英文摘要 Background:Preventing falls in the elderly is one of the most important public health issues in the world. In 2004, the population aged 65 and older had approached 9.36%, and falling is the second leading cause of injury-related death, ranked as the seventh leading cause of death, among elderly people in Taiwan. The incidence of falls in the community dwelling elderly is between 15% and 32%. The risk factors for falls in the elderly are classified as either extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors are related to the environment, and intrinsic factors are related to the individual, diseases, and medication uses. Antihypertensives, antidepressants, diuretics, hypnotics, and psychotic drugs are the most frequently reported intrinsic risk factors for falls. Since hypertension is the tenth leading cause of death and has a higher prevalence in the elderly in Taiwan, we are interested to know the effect of the intervention on increasing the knowledge of fall related to drug use in the hypertensive elderly outpatients by a pharmacist
Objectives:(1) to assess the effect of the intervention about knowledge of drug use, (2) to assess the effect of the intervention about knowledge of falls prevention, and (3) to analyze risk factors for falls among the hypertensive elderly outpatients.

Methods:A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. This study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of the Department of Family Medicine, the National Cheng Kung University Hospital from September to December, 2005. Subjects were hypertensive outpatients aged 65 years and older and recruited by purposive sampling. A pharmacist provided a systematic education regarding the use of antihypertensives and knowledge of falls prevention. Subjects were interviewed before and 4 weeks after the intervention by using structured questionnaires which consists of knowledge of medication use, falls prevention, and demographic characteristics.

Results:One hundred and ten patients completed the second interview with a response rate of 84.6%. After intervention, the mean score of self-report medication compliance of subjects was increased from 3.30.8 to 3.90.3; the knowledge of antihypertensive drug use was increased from 8.81.1 to 9.80.4; and the knowledge of falls prevention was increased from 12.41.4 to 14.40.9 (p<0.001). The incidence of the elderly hypertensive outpatients is 31% in past year. Based on the analysis of stepwise multiple logistic regression, visual deficit, and using hypoglycemic agents and benzodiazepines are significant risk factors for falls (p<0.05).

Conclusions:The pharmacist intervention significantly increased knowledge of antihypertensive drug use and falls prevention, and improved medication compliance among the hypertensive elderly outpatients. Educations of risk factors for falls included visual deficit, using hypoglycemic agents and benzodiazepines were needed to emphasize.



論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 研究背景 1
第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 老年人跌倒之相關研究 3
第一項、老年人跌倒之流行病學 3
第二項、跌倒對老年人所造成之影響 4
第三項、導致跌倒之相關危險因子 6
第四項、藥品使用與老年人跌倒的關係 10
第五項、預防老年人跌倒介入計劃 13
第二節 高血壓之重要性及治療 19
第一項、高血壓之流行病學 19
第二項、高血壓治療準則 20
2.1 高血壓之非藥物治療 24
2.2 高血壓之藥物治療 26
2.3 特殊病患族群之高血壓用藥考量 28
第三節 高血壓老年病患之用藥問題 32
第一項、高血壓老年病患服藥順從性 32
第二項、高血壓老年病患之用藥知識 34
第四節 藥師在預防老年病患跌倒之角色 37
第一項、檢視病患用藥方面 37
第二項、用藥衛教方面 38
第三章 研究目的 39
第四章 研究方法 40
第一節 研究設計 40
第二節 研究對象 40
第三節 研究架構與步驟 41
第一項、研究架構 41
第二項、研究步驟 42
第四節 研究工具 45
第一項、問卷內容 45
1.1問卷信效度 47
1.2問卷內部一致性 48
第二項、衛教內容 49
第五節 資料分析 50
第一項、統計模式設定 50
第二項、資料分析方法 50
第三項、統計軟體 51
第五章 研究結果 53
第一節 研究對象人口學特徵及臨床特徵分布與比較 53
第二節 研究對象用藥知識及跌倒預防知識的評量情形 57
第一項、高血壓病患服藥自我報告簡易量表 57
第二項、高血壓老年病患用藥知識評估 60
第三項、高血壓老年病患跌倒預防知識評估 64
第三節 研究對象跌倒之相關因素 69
第一項、高血壓老年病患過去一年有無發生跌倒者之人口學與臨床特徵比較 69
第二項、高血壓老年病患使用潛在性增加跌倒危險的藥品 73
第六章 討論 77
第一節 研究對象人口學特徵及臨床特徵分布與比較 77
第二節 研究對象用藥知識及跌倒預防知識的評量情形 78
第一項、高血壓病患服藥自我報告簡易量表 78
第二項、高血壓老年病患用藥知識評估 80
第三項、高血壓老年病患跌倒預防知識評估 83
第三節 研究對象跌倒之相關因素 86
第一項、高血壓老年病患過去一年有無發生跌倒者之人口學與臨床特徵比較 86
第二項、高血壓老年病患使用潛在性增加跌倒危險的藥品 87
第七章 研究優點與限制 88
第一節 研究的優點 88
第二節 研究的限制 89
第八章 結論與建議 91
第一節 結論 91
第二節 建議 92
第九章 臨床藥事服務 93
第一節 藥事服務的動機 93
第二節 藥事服務計劃 94
第一項、藥事服務對象 94
第二項、藥事服務進行方法 94
2.1用藥衛教 94
2.2 藥品認知評估 94
2.3 藥物諮詢 95
第三節 藥事服務成果 96
第一項、藥事服務對象的用藥特性 96
第二項、藥事服務對象的藥品認知情形 97
第三項、藥物諮詢情形 100
第四節 藥事服務討論 101
第一項、藥事服務對象的用藥特性 101
第二項、藥事服務對象的藥品認知情形 102
第三項、藥物諮詢情形 102
第五節 藥事服務結論與建議 104
第一項、結論 104
第二項、建議 104
參考文獻 107
附錄一:人體試驗委員會審核通過證明書 115
附錄二:參與研究同意書 116
附錄三:問卷內容 117
附錄四:藥品衛教單張 124
附錄五:老年人預防跌倒守則衛教簡報 134
附錄六:老年人預防跌倒衛教單張 138
附錄七:藥事服務記錄表 139
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911563899
論文名稱(中文) 地震災害之防災系統空間規劃及災害潛勢風險評估之研究-以彰化縣員林鎮為例
論文名稱(英文) Space System Planning of Disaster- Prevention from Earthquake and Risk Evaluation of the Potential Disaster --Case Study in Urban Planning of Yuanlin City in Chunghwa County
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 都市計劃學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Urban Planning
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 戴瑞文
學號 p2690123
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-16
論文頁數 185頁
口試委員 口試委員-李德河
口試委員-陳耀光
指導教授-張益三
口試委員-周士雄
口試委員-柯于璋
關鍵字(中) 土壤液化
災害風險區
防災空間規劃
關鍵字(英) risk zone
soil liquefaction
space planning of disaster prevention
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣一向僅依賴非專業性的消防救災系統之運作來處理地震之救災工作,而對於災害風險區防災空間規劃及土壤液化之防災機制,則未有任何研究與規劃。由於921地震災害之經驗,所顯現之土壤液化現象,確實該喚醒政府及專業學者重視土壤液化之災害風險區劃設及研擬對策,本研究內容包含防救災管理系統與風險管理之國內外相關文獻回顧、規劃理論與架構建立、員林鎮防救災系統。
本研究目的主要在建構員林鎮防救災據點資料庫系統與應用資料庫系統進行都市防災空間規劃;藉由防救災據點系統的建構,進行員林鎮基礎避難圈域服務規模之推估,並考量土壤液化、地震破壞、淹水潛勢、火災及危險據點對避難據點之影響,提出防救災避難據點空間規劃風險評估及對策。



英文摘要 The earthquake disaster in Taiwan only relies on unprofessional operation of fire-fighting against hazard, while the disaster prevention from the soil liquefaction hasn’t been mentioned at all. Because of the experiences of 921 earthquake, delimitation of soil liquefaction of risk zone and related strategies, must be studied and planned without delay.
The research aims to establish database system of disaster prevention and rescue sites, and urban disaster prevention planning of Yuanlin City. By the construction of disaster prevention and rescue sites system, the service size of fundamental refuge rings in Yuanlin City can be evaluated, and the influence on hazard sites and flood hazard potential toward refuge sites are considered, so as to propose the standard and strategy of the space planning of disaster prevention and rescue sites.



論文目次 第一章 緒論............................1-1
第一節 研究動機與目的..................1-1
第二節 研究內容與方法..................1-2
第三節 研究流程........................1-5
第四節 研究成果........................1-6

第二章 文獻回顧.........................2-1
第一節 名詞定義與說明..................2-1
第二節 風險管理規劃相關理論............2-2
第三節 國內外相關災害防救法規..........2-6
第四節 國內外防災管理系統之相關研究....2-13
第五節 都市防災空間系統規劃之相關研究..2-17
第六節 土壤液化之評估機制及方法........2-22

第三章 規劃理論與架構建立...............3-1
第一節 災害防救體系理論與避難圈域機能體系之建
構....................................3-1
第二節 災害地理空間資訊管理系統雛型建構......3-8
第三節 都市防災空間規劃理論..................3-12
第四節 都市防災規劃架構建立..................3-15

第四章 員林鎮地震災害之防災系統空間規劃.......4-1
第一節 員林鎮特性分析........................4-1
第二節 現行員林都市計畫......................4-3
第三節 員林鎮避難據點系統開放空間分析........4-12
第四節 員林鎮防救災避難圈域系統劃設..........4-18
第五節 員林鎮避難與災害防救據點空間系統規劃..4-29
第六節 員林鎮避難影響分析與避難動線規劃......4-41
第七節 員林鎮防救災及避難路徑系統選定........4-50

第五章 員林鎮災害潛勢分析與風險評估...........5-1
第一節 員林鎮防救災訊息資料庫建置構想........5-1
第二節 員林鎮土壤液化潛勢分析與風險評估......5-29
第三節 員林鎮地震破壞分析與風險評估..........5-36
第四節 員林鎮淹水趨勢分析與風險評估..........5-38
第五節 員林鎮火災趨勢分析與風險評估..........5-42
第六節 員林鎮危險據點影響分析與風險評估......5-46
第七節 員林鎮管理組織體系規劃與運作模式......5-49

第六章 結論與建議.............................6-1
第一節 結論...................................6-1
第二節 建議...................................6-8



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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914061763
論文名稱(中文) 以多變量統計流程管制與行動導向之瑕疵預測技術改善軟體流程
論文名稱(英文) Software Process Improvement using Multivariate Statistical Process Control and Action-Based Defect Prediction
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 96
學期 1
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 張慶寶
學號 p7892103
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-01-21
論文頁數 92頁
口試委員 指導教授-朱治平
口試委員-郭淑美
口試委員-洪肇奎
口試委員-李允中
口試委員-劉立頌
召集委員-王豐堅
口試委員-郭耀煌
關鍵字(中) 瑕疵預防
瑕疵預測
軟體品質
以發展行動為導向
資料探勘
軟體流程改善
關鍵字(英) software process improvement
Software process improvement
action-based
defect prediction
defect prevention
學科別分類
中文摘要 降低軟體流程(software process)的變異性(variances)是軟體發展活動中極為重要的步驟,而統計流程管制(statistical process control, SPC)則是在此活動中經常被用來監控軟體流程並找出問題(problems)的一種方式。雖然造成軟體發展流程問題的因素會因為專案屬性的不同(如專案開發人員的經驗、產品的複雜度、輔助工具與專案時程的安排)而不同,但分析現有的瑕疵報告(defect reports)通常被用來找出造成問題的原因(causes),然而分析數量龐大的瑕疵報告並非一件簡單的工作,因果分析技術(Causal Analysis)便是用來找出問題所在,以協助訂定與進行矯正措施(corrective actions)。
本研究提出一種運用多變量統計流程管制(multivariate statistical process control)與以軟體發展行動為導向之瑕疵預測技術(Action-Based Defect Prediction)來偵測軟體發展流程中所發生的問題(problems detection),並同時找出導致問題的原因(causes of problems),這些資訊也將用來對未來軟體發展行動中可能再次發生問題進行預測(prediction)。本研究所提出的方法可以同時對多個事先定義的度量(measures)進行監控(monitor),對於已偵測為對失控點(out-of-control points)影響最大的度量,則可以進一步利用本研究所提的方法來找出導致問題的原因,其中淨最小平方法(partial least square)與多重假設檢定法(multiple hypothesis testing)可用來對於已找出的原因進行驗證(validation)的工作。使用本研究所提出的方法主要好處是對於具有高度相關(correlated)的度量可以同時進行監控,而所得的結果亦有助於因果分析與軟體流程改善的進行。
本研究所提的方法除了可以找出問題的導致原因外,並提供一種以軟體發展行動為導向之軟體瑕疵預測技術(Action-Based Defect Prediction, ABDP)來協助對於軟體發展行動中可能的瑕疵進行預測,此方式主要是以分析專案發展流程中已執行過的軟體發展行動(performed actions)與瑕疵報告(defect reports)來找出造成瑕疵的軟體發展行動特徵(characteristics)。軟體瑕疵(software defect)不但會影響軟體品質(quality),其所衍生的成本(cost)更可能會影響到軟體專案(software project)的成功。雖然於發展初期(early stage)發現且移除瑕疵能有效降低瑕疵所造成的衝擊(impact),但若能在瑕疵發生前即予以防止則不但能有效節省用於瑕疵偵測(defect detection)與瑕疵移除(defect removal)上的成本,更能降低其所產生的衝擊。於軟體發展初期即著手預防軟體瑕疵的產生,更可降低軟體流程(software process)的變異性(variance)與提高軟體產品的穩定度(stability)。而這些找出來的軟體發展行動特徵將可用來預測接下來所要執行的軟體發展行動,如果將要執行的軟體發展行動被預測為有瑕疵產生時,適當的軟體發展行動矯正措施(corrective actions)便可立即用於這些軟體發展行動以便預防可能產生的瑕疵。找出專案發展中可能造成瑕疵的軟體發展行動並不容易,雖然使用預測模型(prediction model)來預測未來的軟體發展流程已為大部分的軟體開發組織所使用,用來建立此預測模型的資料也通常蒐集自過去的軟體專案,然而在不同軟體發展專案中所執行的軟體發展行動可能會產生不同的結果,也因此增加預測的困難度。本研究所提出的ABDP方法便是運用資料探勘(Data Mining)的技術來分析已執行過的軟體發展行動記錄與瑕疵報告,以便獲得可能產生瑕疵的行動樣式(pattern)。此樣式便可以運用來預測將要執行的軟體發展行動是否會產生瑕疵。此ABDP方式在本研究中也運用於一個蒐集自商業專案的資料並獲致相當不錯的預測成效,多種協助處理所蒐集到軟體發展行動資料的方法也同時運用到此方法中,例如運用子資料集合選取(Feature Subset Selection, FSS)來選取適當的屬性集來分析、減少取樣(under-sampling)與增加取樣(over-sampling)則用於不平衡的資料集。
運用本研究所提出的方法主要的優點是多個事先定義好的度量(measures)可以同時進行監測,而對於所找出問題的原因則可以用來協助建立預測模型,此預測模型則可用來用預測同一專案中尚未執行軟體發展行動,此方式則可降低因為不同屬性專案所產生的誤差。此外所建立的預測模型與相關分析的結果也可以提供因果分析之用。
英文摘要 Reducing the variance of software processes is an essential activity for software development process, in which the statistical process control (SPC) is a conventional means of monitoring software processes and detecting related problems. Factors causing problems of software process vary according to the different attributes (such as the experience of the developers, the product complexity, the development tools and the schedule) of a project. Determining the actual causes of reported problems requires significant effort due to the large number of possible causes. Causal analysis is a common approach to discover the causes of defects to facilitate corrective actions.
This study presents an approach to detect problems of software process, identify the causes of problems and predict subsequent actions which are likely to cause problems using Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) and Action-Based Defect Prediction (ABDP). This proposed method can be applied to monitor multiple measures of software process simultaneously. The measures which are detected as the major impacts to the out-of-control signals can be used to identify the causes of problems in this study, in which the partial least squares (PLS) and statistical hypothesis testing are utilized to validate the identified causes. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the correlated indices can be monitored simultaneously, and the results can be utilized to facilitate the causal analysis and software process improvement.
In addition to identify the causes of problems, this study also applies an ABDP approach for in-process software development activities prediction where the data collected from performed actions are utilized to discover the characteristics of actions which are likely to cause problems. Rather than detecting defects at an early stage to reduce their impact, defect prevention means that defects are prevented from occurring in advance to reduce the cost of defect detection and defect removal. Software defects should be prevented to reduce the variance of projects and increase the stability of the software process. The discovered characteristics then can be applied to predict the defects generated by the subsequent actions, in which necessary corrective actions can be taken to avoid defects. The most significant challenge for a project manager is to identify actions that may incur defects before the action is performed. The prediction model is a conventional means of predicting the problems of subsequent software development process, where the prediction model can be built from the data collected from past projects. However, an action performed in different projects may yield different results, which are hard to predict in advance. The ABDP approach proposed in this study applies data mining techniques on the records of performed actions and reported defects in order to discover the patterns that are likely to cause defects. The discovered patterns then can be applied to predict the subsequent actions that may result in defects. To demonstrate the efficiency of the ABDP approach, it is applied to a business project, giving excellent prediction results and revealing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Many approaches used to handle the collected data are applied to increase the precision of predictions for subsequence actions, such as the Feature Subset Selection (FSS) technique is applied to select a set of attributes, the under-sampling is applied to the majority data, while the over-sampling is applied to address rarity problems.
The main benefit of using the approach proposed in this study is that multiple measures defined can be monitored simultaneously. Once the causes of problems are identified, the results obtained from the analysis process can be utilized to build prediction models. The prediction models can be used to evaluate subsequent actions for in-process projects, and reduce variance of software projects. Additionally, the prediction models can be utilized for causal analysis to improve software processes accordingly.
論文目次 Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Background 5
2.1. Software Process Measurement 5
2.2. Statistical Process Control 7
2.3. Multivariate Statistical Process Control 11
2.4. Partial Least Squares (PLS) 17
2.5. Hypothesis Testing 19
2.6. Software Defects 21
2.7. The Prediction Techniques 23
2.8. Summary 24
Chapter 3 Related Work 25
3.1. Causal Analysis 25
3.2. Software Defect Prediction 26
3.3. Software Defect Classification 28
2.9. Summary 30
Chapter 4 Multilevel Software Cause Identification 32
4.1. The Architecture of the MSCI 32
4.2. Research Design 35
4.2.1. Study Questions 35
4.2.2. Study Propositions 36
4.2.3. Unit of Analysis 37
4.2.4. Linking Data to Propositions 37
4.3. A Case Study 38
4.4. The Action-Based Model 40
Chapter 5 The Basic Components of the MSCI 45
5.1. The Process Monitoring Component 45
5.1.1. The Multilevel Measures 45
5.1.2. Multivariate Statistical Process Control 49
5.1.3. L1 Measures Analysis 51
5.2. The Cause Identification Component 51
5.2.1. L2 Measure Analysis 51
5.2.2. Problem Definition and Hypotheses Testing 53
5.3. The Action-Based Defect Prediction Component 56
5.3.1. The Action Definition 58
5.3.2. Data Collection 58
5.3.3. Data Analysis 60
5.3.4. Action Prediction 66
Chapter 6 Analytical Results and Discussions 70
6.1. Research Questions 70
6.2. Experimental Results of ABDP 72
6.2.1. The Sampling without FSS 74
6.2.2. Applied the FSS with Sampling 74
6.3. Threats to Validity 76
Chapter 7 Conclusion and Future Works 80
References 83
Appendix 89
1. An example of preprocessed data set 89
2. An example of reported defects 90
個人簡歷 91
著作目錄 92
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914243022
論文名稱(中文) 在資源有限的普及網路中對於路由協定、網路安全、與服務自動化議題之研究
論文名稱(英文) Researches on Routing, Security, and Service Automation in Resource-constrained Ubiquitous Networks
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 蘇維宗
學號 p7890113
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2008-06-16
論文頁數 150頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳朝烈
指導教授-郭耀煌
召集委員-曾建超
口試委員-陳俊良
口試委員-石維寬
口試委員-謝錫堃
口試委員-楊竹星
關鍵字(中) 入侵偵測
服務品質要求
金鑰雜湊訊息認證碼
入侵預防
普及運算
效益函數
有類別限制之子圖同構問題
多維度多選擇背包問題
關鍵字(英) Intrusion detection
Intrusion prevention
Subgraph Isomorphism
Quality of Service (QoS)
Utility function
Multi-dimension Multi-choice Knapsack Problem (M
Ubiquitous computing
Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
學科別分類
中文摘要 普及運算(ubiquitous computing)被視為下一代的電腦運算技術,其願景是讓使用者可以在任何時間、任何地點、透過任何裝置來存取運算環境。近年來,許多研究成果使得普及運算技術有長足的進步。然而,在資源有限的普及網路(ubiquitous networks)中仍然有一些尚待解決或改善的議題。本論文將針對資源有限的普及網路環境來探討三個重要的研究議題,包含路由協定、網路安全、與服務自動化。
首先,我們處理在網路層上如何有效利用能源的議題。由於普及網路中有許多裝置(例如,感測節點與手持式裝置)是以電池供電,因此如何有效利用能源是一個相當重要的議題。在本論文中,所提出的能源比例式路由方法(Energy Proportional Routing,ERP)與封包長度調適方法(Packet Length Adaptation,PLA)可以有效地提升叢聚式無線網路的網路吞吐量與能源使用率。為了平衡負載,EPR 預測並控制所有節點的能源損耗以讓所有節點的能源使用率能夠趨於平均能源使用率。另外,PLA 可以根據雜訊所造成的封包錯誤率來設定最佳的封包長度以提升網路吞吐量與能源使用率。然而,隨著雜訊的增強就如同拉長傳輸距離一樣會造成更多的能源損耗。因此,為了能夠更準確的估算能源損耗,本論文也提出一個將通道雜訊轉換為傳送距離的模型使得在加入通道雜訊的情況下亦能夠有效地提升網路吞吐量與能源使用率。
第二個要探討的議題是普及網路的安全性。由於個人資料可能會透過普及網路來傳送,因此驗證資料的來源與完整性是一項必要的工作。然而,傳統的安全性方法並無法直接套用在以降低能源損耗為重要議題的網路環境上。因此,本論文提出了適用於叢聚式無線網路的認證式入侵預防機制(Authentication-based Intrusion Prevention,AIP)與協同式入侵偵測機制(Collaboration-based Intrusion Detection,CID)。AIP 依據資料重要性、網路頻寬、金鑰雜湊訊息認證碼長度、與金鑰存活期等特性而採用安全性等級不同的認證機制以達到降低能源損耗的目的。然而,AIP 並無法避免被入侵的內部節點所發動的攻擊。因此,CID 藉由網路節點互相監控的方式來進行入侵偵測以在網路安全與能源損耗之間取得平衡。
最後要探討的是考量服務品質要求與資源使用率的服務自動化議題。對使用者所要求的普及服務(ubiquitous services)而言,一組適合的裝置應該能夠自動地形成一個小型網路(piconet)以執行這些普及服務而不需要使用者的介入。為了達到此目的,首先我們分別提出了用來描述普及服務與普及網路的數學模型。另外,由於不同的服務型態與使用者對於服務品質的定義有很大的差異,因此多目的效益函數理論(Multiple Objective Utility Theory)被用來量化使用者對於服務品質的滿意度。本論文提出了兩個服務自動化演算法。對於移動式且大型普及網路而言,我們提出了基於解決有類別限制之子圖同構問題(Class Constrained Subgraph Isomorphism Problem)的分散式服務自動化演算法。另一方面,對於固定式且小型普及網路而言,我們則是提出了基於解決多維度多選擇背包問題(Multi-dimension Multi-choice Knapsack Problem)的集中式服務自動化演算法。透過實驗與模擬可以證明本論文所提出的兩個演算法可以在資源有限的普及網路中有效地配置網路資源並取得代表服務品質之系統效益值的近似最佳解。
英文摘要 Ubiquitous computing (UbiCom) is the next-generation computing technology with the vision: user could access computing environments in an “any time, any where, any device” manner. In the latest decades, the researches on UbiCom have significantly improved to realize digital life. However, there are still several open issues in resource-constrained ubiquitous networks (UbiNet). In this dissertation, we will study three important issues in resource-constrained UbiNet, including routing protocol, network security, and service automation.
First, this work tackles the energy-efficiency issue at the network layer. Energy conservation is truly critical in UbiCom since there are a lot of battery-powered devices (e.g., sensor node, handheld device) in UbiNet. In this dissertation, Energy Proportional Routing (EPR) and Packet Length Adaptation (PLA) are proposed to maximize the throughput and energy utilization in cluster-based wireless networks. To balance the load, EPR algorithm predicts and controls the energy consumption of each node as close as possible to the threshold representing the energy utilization mean value among clusters. In addition, PLA is derived and developed to optimize the throughput and energy utilization in wireless networks. However, more noise introduces more energy consumption since the noise is equivalently regarded as lengthening of transmission distances. Thus, a noise-referred distance model of wireless channels is also developed for more accurate estimation of the dissipated proportion in the residual energy so that further improvement of throughput and energy utilization is obtained.
The second research issue is the network security. Since the personal information could be forwarded in UbiNet, verifying authenticity and integrity of delivered data is indispensable. Unfortunately, energy-efficiency is not considered in conventional security measures. In this dissertation, two energy-efficient security approaches are proposed. In Authentication-based Intrusion Prevention approach (AIP), distinct authentication mechanisms with different security levels are introduced to verify the data according to their relative importance so that the energy consumption is efficient reduced. However, the security threat from compromised sensor nodes cannot be fully avoided. Thus, Collaboration-based Intrusion Detection approach (CID) is then proposed. In CID, the nodes collaboratively monitor each other to balance the tradeoff between network security and energy efficiency.
Finally, we study the issue of service automation with considering quality of service (QoS) and resource utilization. For each ubiquitous service (UbiServ), a set of adequate devices in UbiNet could be automatically organized to carry out this requested UbiServ without any user interaction. For this purpose, the Service Profile (SP) and Ubiquitous Network (UN) models are proposed to represent the UbiServ and the UbiNet, respectively. Moreover, the Multiple Objective Utility Theory (MUOT) is adopted to quantify the service quality which depends on the types of UbiServ and user-specified QoS needs. In this dissertation, two service automation algorithms are proposed. For mobile and large scale networks, the distributed service automation algorithm is proposed on the basis of solving Constrained Subgraph Isomorphism Problem (CC-SUBISO). On the other hand, for fixed and small scale networks, the centralized service automation algorithm is proposed on the basis of solving Multi-dimension Multi-choice Knapsack Problem (MMKP). The experiments and network simulations fully support that the proposed algorithms could maximize the service utility by efficiently allocating the network resources in resource-constrained UbiNet.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
致 謝 V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VI
CONTENTS 1
LIST OF TABLES 5
LIST OF FIGURES 7
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 9
1.1. BACKGROUND 10
1.1.1. Energy and Noise Models for Wireless Communications 10
1.1.2. Secure Communication for Wireless Sensor Network 12
1.1.2.1. Symmetric Key Management 14
1.1.2.2. Attacks against Cluster-based Sensor Networks 15
1.1.3. Ubiquitous Service Environments 16
1.1.3.1. Device Discovery 20
1.1.3.2. Device Composition 21
1.2. MOTIVATION AND CONTRIBUTION 22
1.2.1. Improving the Throughput and Energy Utilization for Noisy Wireless Networks 22
1.2.2. Balancing the Trade-off between Network Security and Energy Efficiency 23
1.2.3. Developing the Ubiquitous Service Automation Platform 24
1.3. ORGANIZATION OF THIS DISSERTATION 25
CHAPTER 2. NOISE-REFERRED ENERGY-PROPORTIONAL ROUTING WITH PACKET LENGTH ADAPTATION FOR CLUSTERED SENSOR NETWORKS 27
2.1. ENERGY PROPORTIONAL ROUTING 28
2.2. OPTIMAL PLA AND NOISE REFERRED DISTANCE 37
2.2.1. Throughput 37
2.2.2. Energy Utilization 38
2.2.3. Noise-referred Distance 39
2.3. ENERGY-PROPORTIONAL ROUTING WITH OPTIMAL PLA 40
2.4. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF ERP 42
2.5. EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATIONS 48
2.5.1. The Effects of Noise 48
2.5.2. Simulations of the Whole Sensor Network 49
2.5.3. EPR Routing with Noise-referred Distance 50
CHAPTER 3. ENERGY-EFFICIENT INTRUSION PROHIBITION SYSTEM FOR CLUSTER-BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 53
3.1. PROBLEM SETTING 54
3.2. AUTHENTICATION-BASED INTRUSION PREVENTION 55
3.2.1. Control Messages Verification in AIP 55
3.2.2. Sensed Data Verification in AIP 61
3.3. COLLABORATION-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION 65
3.3.1. Cluster Head Monitoring in CID 66
3.3.1.1. Determining the Alarm threshold and the Number of Monitor Nodes 67
3.3.1.2. Collaborative Monitoring Mechanism 71
3.3.1.3. Revoking Abnormal Cluster Heads 73
3.3.2. Member Node Monitoring in CID 75
3.4. SIMULATION RESULTS 76
CHAPTER 4. A QOS-DRIVEN APPROACH FOR SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ANYCASTING IN UBIQUITOUS ENVIRONMENTS 83
4.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT OF SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ANYCASTING PROBLEM (SDAP) 84
4.1.1. Representation Models 84
4.1.1.1. SP Representation Model 84
4.1.1.2. MANET Representation Model 85
4.1.2. SDAP Formulation 86
4.2. A QOS-DRIVEN APPROACH FOR SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ANYCASTING 86
4.2.1. QoS-driven Utility Function 87
4.2.2. Description of Service-Oriented Device Anycasting (SDA) Approach 89
4.2.2.1. Service Development Phase (SDP) 90
4.2.2.2. Service Operation Phase (SOP) 93
4.2.2.3. Service Maintenance Phase (SMP) 97
4.3. ANALYSIS OF SDA 99
4.3.1. Time Complexity 100
4.3.2. Space Complexity 100
4.3.3. Number of Control Packets 101
4.4. SIMULATION RESULT 102
4.4.1. Simulation Scenario 102
4.4.1.1. Definitions of QoS Factors used in Simulations 103
4.4.1.2. Simulation Parameters 105
4.4.2. Simulation Results 106
CHAPTER 5. SODAS: SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ARRANGEMENT SYSTEM IN RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED UBIQUITOUS ENVIRONMENTS 109
5.1. UBIQUITOUS SERVICE AND UBIQUITOUS NETWORK MODELING 110
5.1.1. Service Profile Modeling 110
5.1.2. Ubiquitous Network Modeling 110
5.1.3. Criteria of Capable Piconet 111
5.1.4. Quantification of Quality of Ubiquitous Services 112
5.1.5. Available Resource Formulation in Dynamic Environments 115
5.2. RDCP FORMULATION 117
5.3. SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ARRANGEMENT SYSTEM (SODAS) 118
5.3.1. Service-Oriented Device Composer (SODC) 118
5.4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 121
5.4.1. Experimental Environment and Configuration 121
5.4.2. Experimental Results 121
5.4.2.1. Without Resource Competition 121
5.4.2.2. With Resource Competition 122
5.4.2.3. Insufficient Resource 122
CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 127
REFERENCES 131
APPENDIX A THE NP-COMPLETE PROOF OF SERVICE-ORIENTED DEVICE ANYCASTING PROBLEM (SDAP) 139
APPENDIX B THE PROOF OF THAT RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED DEVICE COMPOSITION PROBLEM (RDCP) AS A MMKP 141
自 述 145
VITA 147
PUBLICATION 149
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