進階搜尋

 
查詢範圍:「   」
顯示範圍:第筆 論文書目資料
顯示格式:全部欄位
共 10 筆
------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 1 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200910172938
論文名稱(中文) 灰預測理論於鋪面評估之應用
論文名稱(英文) gray system theory using in Pavement Performance Prediction
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 90
學期 2
出版年 91
研究生(中文) 侯洸廷
學號 n6689139
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2002-06-18
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 口試委員-郭振銘
口試委員-陳建旭
指導教授-蕭志銘
關鍵字(中) 鋪面預測
鋪面績效
鋪面損壞指標(PDI)鋪面狀況調查
關鍵字(英) Pavement Management System
gray system theory
Pavement Performance Prediction Model
Pavement Distress Index
學科別分類
中文摘要 在鋪面管理系統(Pavement Management System,PMS)中,鋪面績效的評估與鋪面績效預測模式(Pavement Performance Prediction Model,PPPM)都是非常重要的環節。快速、準確的鋪面績效評估與預測,可使工程師能夠掌握鋪面現今與未來可能之狀況,進而在經費有限的情況下,作出適當的管理決策。

本研究即應用類神經網路於鋪面管理系統,並結合應用模糊集理論所得到之鋪面損壞指標(Pavement Distress Index,PDI),以鋪面損壞之實地調查資料為基礎,並且應用灰色系統理論作為預測模式與一般回歸預測作比較,討論灰預測於鋪面評估之適用性與精確度,期望能得到一種精確而且不需大量數據即可建立的預測模型。

研究成果顯示灰預測模型在預測PDI有很好的成果,其中一次累加生成建模最為準確,與一般回歸預測的誤差比率平均為3~4倍。
而且在PDI變化性較大時,更能顯現出一次累加生成建模與一般回歸預測的差異性。在本研究所調查的路面中,PDI變化性較大的路段,其一次累加生成建模與回歸預測的誤差比率為9~11倍,比平均的3~4倍高出許多;而變化性小的路段,其誤差幾乎相同。所以一次累加生成建模相當適合在台灣鋪面狀況不穩定的環境作預測,為一種精確且不需大量歷史數據之預測模型。
英文摘要 Accord to the convent traffic 、advancing locality development and prosperous economical ,the government invests in building highway and deforesting roads largely. However highway pavement will be broken with the change of traffic 、temperature and rainfall;and lose its own serviceability to inspire comfort and securityof driving dwindling. How to use the limited budget to make pavement performance assessment and prediction quickly and precisely to be the conformity of pavement maintenance and management;and keep the good performance to satisfy the users’ requirement for pavement service performance is became a very important task for relational organization. In pavement management system,the pavement performance assessment and the pavement performance prediction both are very important,quick and precise pavement performance assessment and prediction let engineers hold pavement affair now and future to do proper management action in condition of limited budget. This research use neural network and fuzzy set theory to get the pavement distress index,basic on the data of field investigation,and use gray system theory to be the prediction model. Expect to get rid of not object measure of present pavement affair performance assessment index and complex items and hardly to be count of annoyance of pavement distress,to build a more object pavement performance assessment index and performance prediction model.
論文目次 摘要 Ⅰ
誌謝 Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅲ
表目錄 Ⅵ
圖目錄 Ⅶ


第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法與流程 2


第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 鋪面管理系統之介紹 4
2.1.1 鋪面管理系統之架構 5
2.1.2 鋪面管理系統之功能與目的 6
2.1.3 鋪面管理系統未來的發展 7
2.2 鋪面績效評估之相關研究 8
2.2.1 鋪面績效評估指標之介紹 8
2.2.2 鋪面績效評估指標之缺失 12
2.2.3 鋪面破壞型態權重之建立 14
2.2.4 台灣常見之鋪面破壞型態 15
2.3 鋪面績效預測之相關研究 21
2.3.1 決定論模式 23
2.3.2 機率論模式 25
2.4 灰預測 27
第三章 灰預測模型建立與應用 28
3.1 渾沌現象 28
3.2 灰色理論系 29
3.3 灰預測模型建立方法 31
3.3.1 一次累加生成建模 32
3.3.2 雙向建模 34
3.3.3 除法建模 36
3.3.4 開平方轉換之一次累加生成建模 37
3.3.5 對數轉換之一次累加生成建模 38
3.3.6 殘差均值修正之一次累加生成建模 39
3.3.7 一次累減生成建模 39
3.4 灰色系統與渾沌系統 40
3.4.1 鋪面系統 41
3.4.2 水滴系統 41
3.4.3 灰預測模型應用於水滴系統之研究與分析 42


第四章 實例計算與應用 47
4.1 預測值之計算 47
4.1.1 一次累加生成建模 47
4.1.2 開平方轉換之一次累加生成建模 49
4.1.3 對數轉換之一次累加生成建模 51
4.1.4 殘差均值修正之一次累加生成建模 52
4.1.5 除法建模 53
4.1.6 雙向建模 54
4.1.7 一次累減成建模 56
4.1.8 最小平方法 57
4.1.9 指數平滑化法 58
4.2 灰預測模型應用於鋪面系統之研究與分析 60
4.2.1 誤差之比較 60
4.2.1.1 模型誤差 60
4.2.1.2 預測誤差 61
4.2.1.3 模型誤差與預測誤差平均 62
4.2.1.4 原始PDI數列與預測準確度之分析 63
4.2.2 維修路段之預測分析 65
4.2.3 鋪面之養護作業 67


第五章 結論與建議 69
5.1 結論 69
5.2 建議 70


參考文獻 72


參考文獻 1. 歐晉德、黃裔炎,「台灣鋪面工程之前瞻」,第九屆鋪面工程學術研討會專題演講,第1-12頁(1997)。
2. 吳漢隆、鄧聚龍、溫坤禮,「灰色分析入門」,高力圖書(1996)。
3. Haas, R., Hudson, W.R., and Zaniewski, J., Modern Pavement Management, Krieger Publishing Company (1994).
4. 黃承傳、汪進財,「公共設施維護管理財物方案之研究」,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所(1992)。
5. 汪海鄂,「台灣省公路局路面養護作業之研究」,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所,碩士論文(1991)。
6. 周家蓓、余政欣、盧家棟,「鋪面表面狀況評估方法之研究」,第九屆鋪面工程研討會,第323-332頁(1997)。
7. Riverson, D.N. John, Kumares, C.S., Charles, F.S., and Virgil, L.A., "Evaluation of Subjective Rating of Unpaved Country Roads in Indiana," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1128, pp. 53-61 (1987).
8. Weaver, R.J., "Quantifying Pavement Serviceability as It Is Judged by Highway Users," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 715 (1979).
9. Nick, J.B., and Janoff, M.S., "Evaluation of Panel Rating Methods for Assessing Pavement Ride Quality," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 946, pp. 5-13 (1983).
10. Janoff, M.S., "Methodology for Computing Pavement Ride Quality From Pavement Roughness Measurements," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1084, pp. 9-17 (1986).

11. Garg, Arun, Alan Horowitz, and Fred Ross, "Establishing Relationships Between Pavement Roughness and Perceptions of Acceptability," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1196 (1988).
12. Carey, W.N. and Irick, P.E., The Pavement Serviceability – Performance Concept, Highway Research Board Bulletin 250 (1960).
13. 陳式毅,「AASHTO道路設計方法應用於台灣省道路試驗報告」,台灣省公路局(1980)。
14. 汪海鄂,「台灣省公路局路面養護作業之研究」,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所,碩士論文(1991)。
15. 吳政隆,「柔性鋪面現況服務力指標之研究」,國立台灣大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1995)。
16. 江煌基,「高速公路鋪面服務能力指標建構之研究」,淡江大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1995)。
17. Shahin M.Y., Pavement Management for Airports, Roads, and Parking Lots, Chapman & Hall (1994).
18. Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., and Queriroz, C.A.V., "International Road Roughness Experiment : A Basis for Establishing a Standard Scale for Road Roughness Measurements," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1084, pp. 76-85 (1986).
19. 黃世英,「鋪面破壞與糙度指標關係之建立」,國立台灣大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1994)。
20. 張其教、張家瑞、洪境聰、林志棟,「鋪面粗糙度量測暨評估指標探討」,中華道路,第三十八卷,第四期,第30-40頁(1999)。
21. 周少凡,「模糊集理論於鋪面表面狀況評估之應用」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1998)。

22. 林勝傑,「類神經網路與馬可夫鍊理論於鋪面狀況評估之應用」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(2001)。
23. Moore, Raymond K., Clark, G. Norman, and Plumb, Gary N., "Present Serviceability-Roughness Correlations Using Rating Panel Data," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1117, pp. 152-158 (1987).
24. 徐春祥,「市區柔性路面維修方式之研究」,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所,碩士論文(1993)。
25. Gerke, R.J. and Tooma, G.G., "Road Pavement Management-Information Needs of a Road Authority," Technical Session 1, Road Engineering Association of Asia and Australia, Sixth Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1 (1990).
26. 蔡攀鰲,「公路工程學」,國立成功大學(2000)。
27. 交通部,「公路養護手冊」,幼獅文化事業有限公司(1989)。
28. Butt, Abbas A., Shahin, Mohamed Y., Feighan, Kieran J., Samuel H. Carpenter, "Pavement Performance Prediction Model Using the Marker Process, " Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1123, pp. 12-19 (1987).
29. Stevens, L.B., Road Surface Management for Local Governments – Resource Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Repost No. DOT-I-85-37 (1985).
30. Chen, Xin, Hudson, S., Cumberledge, G., and Perrone, E., "Pavement Performance Modeling Program for Pennsylvania," Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1508, pp. 1-8 (1995).
31. Lapin, Lawrence L., Modern Engineering Statistics, Duxbury Press (1997).
32. Smith, R.E., "Structuring a Microcomputer Based Pavement Management System for Local Agencies, " Ph.D. dissertation , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (1986).
33. 黃山琿,「馬可夫鍊理論在鋪面管理系統中之應用」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1998)。
34. 黃建中,「高速公路鋪面績效預測模式構建-應用馬可夫鍊法」,淡江大學土木工程研究所,碩士論文(1997)。
35. 鄧聚龍、郭洪,「灰預測原理與應用」,全華圖書(1996)。
36. 林昱宏,「灰色理論應用於人體計測資料庫數據驗證研究」,大業大學工業工程研究所,碩士論文(2000)。
37. 呂安林、張晶、譚學瑞,累減生成GM(1,1)模型研究,1997年灰色理論與應用研究研討論會文集,第280-284頁(1997)。
38. 林房儹、林昱宏,灰色理論在水滴實驗之渾沌現象應用研究,灰色理論學刊第二期,第109-115頁(1999)。

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 2 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200910353200
論文名稱(中文) 應用模糊語意方法與不連續選擇理論建立家戶購屋選擇行為模式之研究
論文名稱(英文) Fuzzy Linguistic Approach and Discrete Choice Theory for Building Choice Behavior Model in Household Purchase
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 都市計劃學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Urban Planning
學年度 91
學期 2
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 連經宇
學號 p2886101
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2003-04-11
論文頁數 159頁
口試委員 口試委員-張金鶚
口試委員-曾國雄
口試委員-林祖嘉
口試委員-郭耀煌
口試委員-鄒克萬
指導教授-陳彥仲
關鍵字(中) 住宅
區位選擇
類型選擇
Logit模型
模糊語意尺度法
關鍵字(英) housing
location choice
type choice
Logit model
Fuzzy Linguistic Scale (FLS)
學科別分類
中文摘要   有關家戶對住宅之選擇行為,長期以來一直是重要的研究課題。由於家戶在住宅選擇時通常包含甚為複雜的過程,其中隱含的不確定性甚高。加以消費者對自身需求並非明確具體,而具主觀感認的模糊性,欲取得明確的資訊實際上是非常困難的。即使資料中所給予的明確資訊是否能真正表現出消費者本身在偏好上的模糊特性,亦值得商榷。因此,瞭解購屋家戶對住宅選擇的偏好與行為評估準則對於政府擬定住宅政策及業者提供適切的住宅產品將會是非常有助益的。本研究將主題將界定在方法論的比較上。主要目的在建立一個更趨近於人類主觀感認(subjective perception)的真實行為可以處理語意變數之個體家戶購屋選擇行為分析模式,以作為試圖改進Logit模型在家戶住宅個體選擇行為研究中對於模糊性與不確定性問題的處理。本研究首度嘗試藉由傳統不連續選擇理論中的Logit模型結合模糊決策理論中改良後的模糊語意尺度法(Fuzzy Linguistic Scale, FLS)來推估家戶住宅選擇之機率,以建構「在模糊語意下的Logit模型(Fuzzy Linguistic Logit Model, FLLM)」。

  在實證分析方面,本研究以家戶購屋區位與類型選擇行為之影響效果為例,藉由相關文獻回顧及購屋決策選擇行為理論,選取衡量家戶購屋決策區位及類型選擇行為之適當指標,並設計傳統李克特尺度法與模糊語意尺度法之問卷。將傳統李克特尺度及模糊語意尺度兩種問卷調查資料的結果,分別透過相關分析、因素分析與信度分析萃取重要的原始與模糊購屋決策選擇屬性變數,以建立各屬性變數的模糊權重,進而建構家戶購屋決策區位及類型選擇的模糊效用函數。然後,分別應用不連續選擇理論於家戶購屋決策區位及類型選擇之二項、多項及巢式Logit模型,及結合不連續選擇理論以及模糊集合論後的家戶購屋決策區位及類型選擇之在模糊語意下的二項、多項及巢式Logit模型之三類不同的參數校估模式,建立家戶購屋決策區位及類型選擇行為的理論分析架構。最後,將原始與在模糊語意下的二項、多項及巢式Logit修正模型的估計結果分別進行模型驗證與比較,以驗證本研究所建立的三種模糊整合模型是否較佳。實證資料選自於1998年初至1999年底台南都市地區的購屋家戶住宅調查。

  本研究的實證結果可分為兩個部分來探討。第一、在不同方法論的比較方面:首先,由實證分析結果證實,本研究所建立的家戶住宅區位與類型選擇個體行為分析模型。在加入模糊語意後,除了住宅類型二項選擇模型外,無論在模型的配適能力、預測成功率、期望需求彈性與概似比統計量檢定等相關統計與經濟指標的意義上,在模糊語意下多項選擇與巢式選擇之Logit模型皆較傳統多項選擇與巢式選擇之Logit個體模型為佳。其次,本研究經由實證分析結果發現,在模糊語意下的Logit模型在理論與實務應用上能適用於透天或是集合住宅家戶進行住宅區位多項選擇與住宅類型巢式選擇之情況; 其中由於包容值係數值介於0與1之間,顯示其他Logit模型的估計值都會有誤差,故本研究乃用巢式Logit模型來改善其他Logit模型的問題(例如多項Logit模型IIA的問題)。最後,經由本研究實證結果證實,在傳統Logit模型加入模糊語意後,將可以解決傳統住宅選擇個體計量經濟模型中具模糊性與不確定性的解釋變數處理的問題,並可作為協助具質化資料與量化分析方法整合的重要參考。

  第二、在實證分析的成果方面:首先,在模糊語意尺度型態尺度之差異比較方面,經由本研究實證分析後發現,某些型態語意措辭的三角模糊數存在多個重疊(overlapping)的現象,在提高認同程度衡量函數進行解模糊化後,雖可明顯改善模糊數圖形重疊的效果,但因樣本數大幅減少而無法反映實際調查樣本的行為現象。因此其顯示的意義代表選項愈多受訪者愈難加以評價的現象,充分表現人類進行評價時的心理認知是模糊的特性。此外,各型態模糊數的定義範圍皆不同,可解決傳統問卷假設任何兩種尺度間的差距都是相等的衡量誤差,而且透天及集合住宅家戶無論對於購屋評估準則之購屋前重視度或購屋後滿意度均大都傾向較為負面的看法。其次,在實證模型解釋變數的合理性方面,「家戶可支配所得」與「住宅面積」兩變數的係數均呈現相當顯著性,顯示「家戶可支配所得」或「住宅面積」愈高,家戶選擇住宅的效用愈大。「良好學區滿意度」變數除了集合住宅五方案模型外,均為家戶進行住宅區位選擇的具顯著影響變數。顯示上述具顯著性的三個變數均與相關研究結果一致。最後,在透天與集合住宅家戶的期望需求彈性推估結果方面,無論是家戶進行住宅區位與住宅類型個體選擇時,在模糊語意下的Logit模型校估結果所推估的彈性值變化的幅度較傳統Logit個體模型校估結果所推估的彈性值變化的幅度為小,顯示其集中程度已提高。
英文摘要   A household's decision for housing choice is always a critical issue. During households' housing choice behavior, it includes a very complex and uncertain process. It is very difficult to get certain information on households' housing choice behavior. Understanding the household's preference and establishing the evaluating criteria would help the government to formulate housing policies and the housing developers to provide housing products. The major topic of this study will be focused on the comparison of different methodologies. The main purpose of this study is to purpose a new micro-choice behavior model in household purchase and to depict the reality of human subjective perception behavior. We hope to improve the Logit model in dealing with many uncertain and fuzzy situations about housing choice behavior in household purchase. A new Fuzzy Linguistic Logit Model (FLLM) is proposed in this study to estate the probability of housing choice according to the Logit models of discrete choice theory combined with the well-developed Fuzzy Linguistic Scale (FLS) approach.

  In empirical analysis, this study will give instances for the effects of housing location and type choice behavior in household purchase. The choice indexes will be measured to a household's decision for housing location and type choice behavior by means of related literature reviews. This study will also design two questionnaires for both Likert scale and FLS in order to extract the weights of both certain and fuzzy attribute variables and to construct fuzzy utility function by using correlation analysis, factor analysis and reliability analysis. A new FLLM is established by applying the binary, multinomial and nested choice Logit models as well as FLS for location and type choice in household purchase. Then this study will verify and compare whether the empirical results of those three FLLMs are better or not. We selected data from a housing survey in Tainan city of the southern Taiwan for the empirical case study from the beginning of 1998 to the end of 1999.

  The research results show the following two parts. First, in the comparison of different methodologies: the first finding of this study is that after comparing the different models, in addition to binary choice models, the goodness-of-fit, success rate of forecasting, expected demand elasticity and likelihood statistic test in FLLM are all better than those in Logit model, especially in the nested fuzzy Logit model (FNMNL). The second finding of this study is that the new model is proposed to be more capable of dealing with the problem of qualitative variables, which is one of the critical issues in quantitative approaches. Second, in the empirical results: the first finding of this study is that in the different comparison of FLS, triangular fuzzy numbers of some linguistic types have several overlapping situations. Although above situations are significantly improved after raising the numerical value of Identity Degree Measure Function (IDMF) to process the defuzzification, this result cannot reflect the real human behavior due to the samples decreased substantially. The implication of this result verifies that the human subjective perception has the fuzzy characteristics. In addition, the definitions of various types of fuzzy number are different and unsymmetrical. For the households of single and multiple housing, the opinions of ordinary people for relatively negative linguistic terms show greater differences, whereas those for more positive linguistic terms are usually more similar. The second finding of this study is that the household disposable income and housing space are very significant. Except for five alternatives of the households of multiple housing, the degree of satisfaction for neighborhood zone is very significant. Finally, in the estimation results of expected demand elasticity, the change scope of elasticity value for FLLM is less than that of Logit model. It indicates that the degree of concentration has been increased.
論文目次 第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
  第一節 研究緣起與目的………………………………………1
  第二節 研究對象與範圍………………………………………3
  第三節 研究架構與方法………………………………………5
  第四節 研究內容與流程………………………………………6

第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………8
  第一節 住宅選擇行為理論……………………………………8
  第二節 不連續選擇行為理論…………………………………20
  第三節 模糊決策理論…………………………………………22

第三章 理論模式建構………………………………………………26
  第一節 家戶購屋選擇行為要因之萃取………………………26
  第二節 選擇行為模式之建構…………………………………27
  第三節 模式建構之過程與應用………………………………28

第四章 實證資料分析與模糊語意尺度型態之差異比較…………43
  第一節 抽樣問卷設計…………………………………………43
  第二節 資料處理分析…………………………………………50
  第三節 樣本結構分析…………………………………………52
  第四節 原始與模糊語意因素分析……………………………55
  第五節 模糊語意尺度型態之差異比較………………………57

第五章 透天住宅家戶購屋區位選擇之實證分析…………………62
  第一節 替選方案指定與變數定義說明………………………62
  第二節 不相干替選方案獨立性之問題………………………66
  第三節 住宅區位選擇三方案GMNL與FMNL模型之比較分析…67
  第四節 住宅區位選擇五方案GMNL與FMNL模型之比較分析…72
  第五節 住宅區位選擇七方案GMNL與FMNL模型之比較分析…76
  第六節 不同替選方案模型之比較分析………………………79
  第七節 討論……………………………………………………81

第六章 集合住宅家戶購屋區位選擇之實證分析…………………83
  第一節 替選方案指定與變數定義說明………………………83
  第二節 住宅區位選擇四方案GMNL與FMNL模型之比較分析…86
  第三節 住宅區位選擇五方案GMNL與FMNL模型之比較分析…91
  第四節 不同替選方案模型之比較分析………………………95
  第五節 討論……………………………………………………97

第七章 家戶購屋型態選擇之實證分析……………………………99
  第一節 家戶住宅類型二項選擇Logit模型
      與模糊語意二項選擇Logit模型之比較分析……… 99
  第二節 透天與集合住宅型態選擇兩巢層MNL與FNMNL模型之比較分析…105
  第三節 不同替選方案模型之比較分析………………………117
  第四節 討論……………………………………………………119

第八章 結論與後續研究……………………………………………121
  第一節 結論……………………………………………………121
  第二節 研究限制………………………………………………126
  第三節 後續研究………………………………………………127

參考文獻………………………………………………………………136
附錄一…………………………………………………………………148
附錄二…………………………………………………………………151
附錄三…………………………………………………………………158
參考文獻 (一)中文部分
1. 尤淨纓(2001),網路電路選擇行為之研究-模糊積分羅吉特模式之應用,交通大學交通運輸研究所碩士論文。(未出版)

2. 伊慶春(1987),夫妻權力與婚姻調適之研究:初步分析,行政院國科會專題研究計畫報告。

3. 江建良(2001),市場調查,台北:高立圖書公司。

4. 汪培庄(1990),模糊集合論及其應用,台北:中國生產力中心。

5. 台南市政府(1992),台南市綜合發展計畫。

6. 台南市政府(1996),台南市住宅建設計畫之規劃。

7. 台南縣政府(1995),台南縣綜合發展計畫。

8. 阮亨中、吳柏林(2000),模糊數學與統計應用,台北:俊傑書局。

9. 阮金祥、徐村和、詹惠君(1998),「模糊理論與服務品質管理應用之探討-以北高航線為例」,1998企業管理研討會論文集,東吳大學企業管理學系。

10. 李金泉(1993),SPSS/PC+實務與應用統計分析,台北:松岡電腦公司。

11. 李信佩(1997),家戶組成對住宅租購選擇影響之研究-以台北市為例,政治大學地政研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

12. 林見飛(2000),從空屋鏈理論推論都市住宅空屋移轉現象之研究-以台南市為例,成功大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

13. 林祖嘉(1990),「反向巢型多項式Logit模型下的住宅需求與租買選擇」,經濟論文,第18卷第1期,第137至158頁。

14. 林祖嘉(1992),「台灣地區房租與房價關係之研究」,台灣銀行季刊,第43卷第1期,第279至312頁。

15. 林祖嘉(1994),「台灣地區住宅需求與租買選擇之聯合估計」,國立政治大學學報,第68期,第188至200頁。

16. 林祖嘉、林素菁(1994),「台灣地區住宅需求價格彈性與所得彈性之估計」,住宅學報,第2期,第25至48頁。

17. 林國民(1996),高雄市自有住宅特徵價格之研究,成功大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

18. 林瑞山(1992),台北市民生活型態對於購買房屋行為影響之研究,中興大學企管研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

19. 吳水威(1998),「市中心商業區行人對佈道類型選擇模式之研究」,國科會區域研究學門專題計劃成果發表會論文集,第119至129頁。

20. 吳育哲(1998),住宅購屋者生活型態與市場區隔之研究,淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

21. 吳森田(1981),「居住需求的所得彈性:台北市的實證結果」,經濟研究,第23期,第11至16頁。

22. 周美伶、張金鶚(2002),「購屋搜尋行為影響因素之研究」,2002年中華民國住宅學會第十一屆年會論文集,中華民國住宅學會,第408至421頁。

23. 段良雄(1984),「巢式多項羅機(NMNL)運具選擇模式」,運輸計劃季刊,第13卷,第3期,第285至308頁。

24. 段良雄、張淳智(1992),「建立個體住宅區位選擇模式之研究」,運輸計劃季刊,第21卷,第4期,第401至422頁。

25. 洪鴻智(1997),可能性理論與模糊數學在環境風險-效益分析之應用,台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所博士論文(未出版)。

26. 胡誌芳(1989),台北市民住宅選擇與購宅能力之研究,政治大學地政研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

27. 徐村和(1998),「消費者對信用卡認知與偏好之研究」,企業管理學報,第43期,第107至134頁。

28. 徐村和(1998),「模糊德菲層級分析法」,模糊系統學刊,第4卷第1期,第59至72頁。

29. 徐村和、李達章(1997),「模糊產品投資組合模式」,管理學報,第14卷第2期,第263至286頁。

30. 徐村和、楊宗欣(2000),「應用模糊層級分析法評選廣告媒體」,管理與系統,第7卷第1期,第19至39頁。

31. 徐村和、朱國明、詹惠君(2001),「模糊語意尺度之研究」,企業管理學報,第五十一期,第27至52頁。

32. 連經宇、陳彥仲(1999),「模糊語意變數法應用於住宅消費決策行為之初探研究」,住宅學報,第八期,第69至90頁。

33. 連經宇(2002),「家戶購屋決策影響因素之初探研究:結合模糊語意的因素分析法之實證比較」,台灣土地研究,第四期,第29至51頁。

34. 陳協勝(1992),模糊多準則決策應用在都市公車民營化方案評估之研究,成功大學交通管理科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

35. 陳彥仲(1996),住宅特徵屬性隱含市場之推估方法比較及實證探討,行政院國科會專題研究計畫成果報告,計畫編號:NSC86-2415-H006-003。

36. 陳彥仲(1997),「住宅選擇之程序性決策模式」,住宅學報,第5期,第37至49頁。

37. 陳彥仲(1998),「對多項Logit模型參數指定方式之比較分析」,交大管理學報,第18卷第2期,第171至185頁。

38. 陳淑美、張金鶚(1998),「戶長及其配偶對住宅區位選擇之影響力分析」,住宅學報,第7期,第59至81頁。

39. 陳淑美(2000),家戶住宅調整決策與區位選擇之研究-兼論女性的影響力分析,政治大學地政研究所博士論文(未出版)。

40. 陳偉傑(1997),市場導向的模糊群組定位模式-以信用卡產業為例,義守大學管理科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

41. 曹勝雄、曾國雄、江勁毅(1996),「傳統計量迴歸、模糊迴歸、GMDH、類神經網路四種方法在預測應用之比較-以國人赴港旅客需求之預測為例」,中國統計學報,第34期,第2卷,第132至161頁。

42. 曹葦如、張金鶚、林秋瑾(1999),「以質化方法分析台北地區購屋之行為」,1999年中華民國住宅學會第八屆年會論文集,中華民國住宅學會,第277至298頁。

43. 張金鶚、林秋瑾、劉怡吟(1996),「台北市家戶住宅選擇變遷之研究」,1996年中華民國住宅學會第五屆年會論文集,中華民國住宅學會,第487至516頁。

44. 張家瑞(2001),建立台灣地區瀝青路面網級養護管理系統-以公路局中壢工務段為例,中央大學土木工程研究所博士論文。(未出版)

45. 曾芳美(2002),「分割型模糊積分羅吉特模型」,2002中華民國第十屆模糊理論及其應用會議論文集光碟版,中國模糊學會。

46. 曾國雄、歐嘉瑞、陳郁文(1993),「稅負規費徵收對台灣地區小汽車銷售量之影響-模糊迴歸與傳統迴歸於公共政策探討之應用」,中國行政評論,第2卷第3期,第91至126頁。

47. 曾國雄、邱怡璋、陳君杰(1997),「模糊敘述性偏好整合模式之研究」,模糊系統學刊,第3期,第2卷,第39至51頁。

48. 曾喜鵬、薛立敏(2001),「台北都會區居住遷移區位與住宅全屬選擇關係及其影響因素之研究」,2001年中華民國住宅學會/區域科學學會聯合年會及論文研討會論文集,第621至641頁。

49. 郭育志(1990),台北市民生活型態對購屋行為之動機、評估準則、態度因素影響之研究,台灣大學商學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

50. 郭婉容(1992),個體經濟學,台北:三民書局。

51. 戚靜玟(1998),住宅市場區隔與購屋行為之研究,台灣科技大學管理技術研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

52. 黃文隆(1999),抽樣方法,初版,台中:滄海書局。

53. 黃俊英(1991),多變量分析,第四版,台北:中國經濟企業研究所。

54. 黃盛銘(1996),小汽車消費選擇行為-模糊多屬性效用模式,義守大學管理科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

55. 黃錦玲(1994),台北市住屋購買行為之研究,交通大學管理科學研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

56. 馮正民、呂秀玉(1997),「模糊方法在質化評估準則之運用-交通建設土地徵收難易度為例」,都市與計畫,第24期,第1卷,第1至21頁。

57. 鄒克萬(1988),「屬性效用評估模式(EBAU)之發展」,規劃學報,第15期,第117至132頁。

58. 楊重信(1987),「台灣地區之居住空間水準」,台灣地區人口遷移、分佈與區域發展研討會論文集,第145至186頁。

59. 楊龍士、江宛瑛(1993),「影響居住區位選擇指標之建立」,規劃學報,第20期,第71至86頁。

60. 虞惕(1987),台中市住屋市場購買行為之研究,東海大學企管研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

61. 榮泰生(1999),消費者行為,台北:五南圖書出版公司。

62. 蔡吉源(1980),租稅與居所選擇,台北:中央研究院三民主義研究所。

63. 蔡坤宏(1997),「順序尺度之等具架設對驗證性因素分析模式估計的影響」,管理科學學報,第387至402頁。

64. 蔡宜哲(1996),從個體不連續選擇行為探討台灣地區住宅需求之價格彈性及所得彈性分析,成功大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

65. 蔡菊花(1998),休閒式住宅市場購屋與使用行為之研究-「地中海」與「百年大鎮」個案探討,中興大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

66. 鄧振源、曾國雄、林幸加(1989),「模糊決策原理及其應用」,交通運輸,第11期,第99至125頁。

67. 劉廷揚、王蓉莉、蘇政宏(2000),「高雄市消費者購屋決策行為之研究」,2000年中華民國住宅學會第九屆年會論文集,中華民國住宅學會,第123至136頁。

68. 劉怡吟(1996),台北市家戶住宅選擇變遷之研究,政治大學地政研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

69. 劉惠雯(1985),台北都會區社區/住宅選擇之研究,中興大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

70. 謝文盛、林素菁(2000),「租稅效果對住宅租買選擇影響之分析」,住宅學報,第9卷第1期,第1至17頁。

71. 薛立敏、陳琇里(1997),「住宅租擁選擇下家計消費支出之比較」,住宅學報,第七期,第21至40頁。

72. 薛立敏、曾喜鵬(2000),「台灣各都市內部遷徙率與住宅市場關係之實證研究」,住宅學報,第九期,第二卷,第79至97頁。

73. 簡貞玉譯(1996),Hawkins, D. I., R. J. Best, and K. A. Coney(1995), 消費者行為學(Consumer Behavior: Implication for Marketing Strategy), 5th edition, 台北:五南圖書出版公司。

74. 簡錦漢(2001),「家戶搬遷的個體計量方法」,行政院國科會區域研究及人文地理學門研究方法及資料庫運用研討會論文集彙編,第347至367頁。

75. 藎壚(1991),實用模糊數學,台北:亞東書局。


(二)英文部分
1. Alonso, W. (1964), Location and Land Use, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

2. Anas, A. (1982), Residential Location Markets and Urban Transportation, Economic Theory, Econometric and Policy Analysis with Discrete Choice Model, Academic Press, New York.

3. Anas, A. and Chu, C. (1984), "Discrete Choice Models and the Housing Price and Travel to work Elasticities of Location Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp.107-123.

4. Asker, D.A. (1981), "Factor Analysis: An Exposition," in D. Asker(ed.), Multivariate Analysis in Marketing, 2nd ed., Palo Alto, California, U.S.A., pp.163-171.

5. Asker, D.A. (1995), Marketing Research, New York: John Wily & Sons, Inc., 5th ed., pp. 360.

6. Assadian, A. and Ondrich, J. (1993), "Residential Location, housing Demand and Labor Supply Decisions of One- and Two-Earner Household: The Case of Bogota, Colombia," Urban Studies, Vol. 30, No.1, pp.73-86.

7. Bagnoli, C. and Smith, H. C. (1998), "The Theory of Fuzzy Logic and its Application to Real Estate Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.169-199.

8. Bandemer, H. and Gottwald, S. (1995), Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Methods with Applications, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, England.

9. Bartlett, M.S. (1950), "Tests of Significance of Factor Analysis", British Journal of Psychology (Statistical Section), No. 1, pp.77-85.

10. Bellman, R. E. and Zadah, L.A. (1970), "Decision-Making in a Fuzzy Environment," Management Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp.141-164.

11. Ben-Akiva, M. and Lerman, S. R. (1985), Discrete Choice Analysis: Theory and Application to Travel Demand, MIT Press.

12. Boehm, T. P. (1981), "Tenure Choice and Expected Mobility: A Synthesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.375-389.

13. Boehm, T. P. (1982), "A Hierarchical Method of Housing Choice," Urban Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp.17-31.

14. Bollen, K.A. and Brab, K. H. (1981), Pearson's R and Coarsely Categorized Measures, American Sociological Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.232-239.

15. Bradly, R. A., Katti, S. K. and Coons, I. J. (1962), "Optimal Scaling for Ordered Categories," Psychometrika, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.355-374.

16. Chang, P. and Chen, Y. (1994), "A Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision making Method for Technology Transfer Strategy Selection in Biotechnology," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.63, No.2, pp.131-139.

17. Chen, S. H. (1985), "Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with Maximizing Set and Minimizing Set," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.17, No.2, pp.113-129.

18. Chen, S. H. and Hsieh, C. H. (1999), "Graded Mean Integration Representation of Generalized Fuzzy Number," Journal of Chinese Society for Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 5, No.2, pp.1-7.

19. Chen, S. H. and Hwang, C. L. (1992), Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applications, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, pp.465-486.

20. Chen, Y. W. and Tzeng, G. H. (2001), "Using Fuzzy Integral for Evaluateing Subjectively Perceived Travel Costs in A Traffic Assignment Model," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 130, No.3, pp.653-664.

21. Cheng, C. H. (1996), "Evaluating Naval Tactical Missile Systems by Fuzzy AHP Based on the Grade Value of Membership Function," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 96, No.3, pp.343-350.

22. Clark, W. A. and Onaka, J. C. (1985), "An Empirical Test of Joint Model of Residential Mobility and Housing Choice," Environment and Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp.915-930.

23. Davis, H. L., Douglas, S. P. and Silk, A. J. (1981), "Identifying Interurban Shoppers: Multi-product Purchase Patterns and Segmentation Profiles", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45 (Spring), No. 1, pp.98-108.

24. de Leeduw, F. (1971), "The Demand for Housing: A Review of Cross-Section Evidence," Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp.1-10.

25. Delgado, M., Verdegay, J. L. and Vila, M. H. (1993), "Linguistic Decision Making Model," International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol.7, No. 4, pp.479-492.

26. Dong, W. M. and Wong, F. S. (1987), "Fuzzy Weighted Averages and Implementation of the Extension Principle," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 21, No.2, pp.183-191.

27. Dubois, D. and Prade, H. (1988), Possibility Theory: An Approach to Computerized Processing of Uncertainty, New York: Plenum Press.

28. Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D. and Miniard, P. W. (1968 and 1995), Consumer Behavior, 1st and 8th(Eds.). Forth Worth, TX: The Dryden Press.

29. Follain, Jr. J. R. (1982), "Does Inflation Affect Real Behavior: The Case of Housing," Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp.570-582.

30. Follain, Jr. J. R. and Jimenez, E. (1985), "The Demand for Housing Characteristics in Development Countries," Urban Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp.421-432.

31. Frenzen K. and Davis, H. L. (1980), "Purchasing Behavior in Embedded Markets," Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.10, No. 1, pp.1-2.

32. Galster, G. C. (1977), "A Bit Rent Analysis of Housing Market Discrimination," American Economic Reviews, Vol. 67, No.2, pp.144-155.

33. Ghobt, F. and Warren, L. (1995), "A Case Study Comparison of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and A Fuzzy Decision Methodology", The Engineering Economist, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp.233-246.

34. Gillingham, R. and Hagemann, R. (1983), "Cross-Sectional Estimation of A Simultaneous Model of Tenure Choice and Housing Services Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 14, No.1, pp.16-39.

35. Goodman, A. C. (1988), "An Econometric Model of Housing Price, Permanent Income, Tenure Choice, and Housing Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp.327-353.

36. Greene, W. H. (1993), Econometric Analysis, 2nd, ed., Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, pp.636-672.

37. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C. (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.), NJ: Prentice-Hall International Inc., pp.384-385.

38. Hamilton, B. W. (1975), "Property Taxes and Tiebout Hypothesis: Some Empirical Evidence," in Fiscal Zoning and Land Use Control, E. S. Mills and W. E. Oates (eds.) Lexington, Mass.: Heath.

39. Hamilton, B. W. (1976), "The Effects of Property Taxes and Local Public Spending on Property Values: A Theoretical Comment." Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 84, No. 5, pp.647-650.

40. Hamilton, B. W. and Schwab, R. M. (1985), "Expected Appreciation in Urban Housing Markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp.103-118.

41. Henderson, J. V. and Ioannides, Y. M. (1986), "A Model of Housing Tenure Choice," American Economic Reviews, Vol. 73, No.1, pp.98-103.

42. Herrera, F., Herrea-Viedma, E. and Verdegay, J. L. (1996), "A Model of Consensus in Group Decision Making under Linguistic Assessments," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.79, No. 1, pp.73-87.

43. Herrera, F., Herrea-Viedma, E. and Verdegay, J. L. (1997), "A Rational Consensus Model in Group Decision Making Using Linguistic Assessments," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.88, No. 1, pp.31-49.

44. Herrera, F., Herrea-Viedma, E. and Martinez, L. (2000), "A Fusion Approach for Managing Multi-granularity Linguistic Term Sets in Decision Making," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.114, No. 1, pp.43-58.

45. Herzog, T. (1996), Research Methods and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences, Addison Wesley Longman Publishers Inc.

46. Hsu, T. H. (1997), "Transportation Project Evaluations: A Fuzzy Measure AHP," Proceedings of the National Science Council (ROC), Part C, Vol. 7,No. l, pp.26-34.

47. Hsu, H. M. and Chen, C. T. (1996), "Aggregation of Fuzzy Opinions under Group Decision Making," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.79, No.3, pp.279-285.

48. Hsu, T. H., Chu, K. M., Chan, H. C. and Yang, J. S. (1999), "A Study on Fuzzy Linguistic Scale," IFSA '99: Proceedings of 8th International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, Vol. 2, pp.894-898.

49. Ishikawa, A., Amagasa, M., Shiga, T., Tomizawa, G., Tatsuta, R. and Mieno, H. (1993), "The Max-Min Delphi Method and Fuzzy Delphi Method via Fuzzy Integration," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.55, No. 2, pp.241-253.

50. Iwarere L.J. and Williams, J. E. (1991), "A Micro-Market Analysis of Tenue Choice in the Logit Model," The Journal of Real Estate Research, pp.327-339.

51. Kacprzyk, J., Fedrizzi, M. and Nurmi, H. (1992), "Group Decision Making and Consensus under Fuzzy Preference and Fuzzy Majority," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.49, No.1, pp.21-31.

52. Kain, J. F. and Quigley, J. M. (1972), "Housing Market Discrimination, Home Ownership, and Savings Behavior," American Economic Review, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp.263-277.

53. Kain, J. F. and Quigley, J. M. (1976), "Housing Market and Racial Discrimination: A Microeconomic Analysis," The National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.

54. Kaiser, H. F. (1958), "The Varimax Criterion for Analytic Rotation in Factor Analysis," Psychometrika, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp.187-200.

55. Kaiser, H. F. (1960), "The Application of Electronic Computers to Factor Analysis," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp.141-157.

56. Kandel, A. and Friedman, M. (1998), "Defuzzification Using Most Typical Values," IEEE Transactions on Systems, and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics, Vol. 28, No.6, pp.901-906.

57. Kassajian, H. H. and Sheffet, M. J. (1981), "Personality and Consumer Behavior: An Update," in Perspectives in Consumer Behavior, ed. Harold H. Kassarjian and Thomas S. Robbertson, (Glenview, Illinois: Scoot, Foresman, pp.160-180.

58. Keeney, R. L. and Raiffa, H. (1976), Decesion with Objectives: Preference and Value Tradeoffs, John Wiley and Sons.

59. Kim, K. J., Moskowitz, H., Dhingra, A. and Evans, G. (2000), "Fuzzy Multicriteria Models for Quality Function Deployment," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.121, No. 4, pp.504-518.

60. King, A. and Mieszkowski, P. (1973), "Racial Discrimination, Segregation, and the Price of Housing," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 81, No. 4, pp.590-606.

61. Kmenta, J. (1986), Elements of Econometrics, 2nd ed., Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, pp.550-553.

62. Kristensen, G. (1997), "Women's Economic Progress and the Demand for Housing: Theory, and Empirical Analysis Based on Danish Data," Urban Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp.403-418.

63. Lancaster, K. J. (1966), "A New Approach to Consumer Theory," Journal of Political Economy, Vol.74, No. 2, pp.132-157.

64. Lau, K. N. and Post, G. V. (1993), "Evaluating Consumer Preferences for Existing Multiattribute Products: A Non-Metric Approach," Decision Science, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.200-208.

65. Lee, K. M. and Leekwang, H. (1995), "Identification of -Fuzzy Measure by Genetic Algorithms," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 75, No.3, pp.301-309.

66. Lee, T. H. (1968), "Housing and Permanent Income: Tests Based on a Three-Year Reinterview Survey," Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp.480-490.

67. Lee, T. H. and Kong, C. M. (1977), "Elasticities of Housing Demand," Journal of Southern Economics, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp.298-305.

68. Lee, H. (1996), "Group Decision Making Using Fuzzy Sets Theory for Evaluating the Rate of Aggregative Risk in Software Development," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.80, No. 2, pp.261-271.

69. Lerman, S. (1977), "Location, Housing, Automobile Ownership, and Mode to Work: A Joint Choice Model," Transportation Research Record,Vol. 610, No. 1, pp.6-11.

70. Lien, C. Y. and Chen, Y. J. (2002), "A Housing Location Choice Model Combined with a Fuzzy Linguistic Scale," International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp.648-654.

71. Liu, C., Wang, M. and Pang, Y. (1994), "A Multiple Criteria Linguistic Decision Model (MCLDM) for Human Decision Making," European Journal of Operational Research, Vol.76, No. 4, pp.466-485.

72. Liou, T. and Wang, J. (1992), "Fuzzy Weighted Average: An Improved Algorithm," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.87, No. 3, pp.307-315.

73. Maddala, G. S. (1989), Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Cambridge University Press, pp.22-46.

74. Maisel, J. J., Burnham, B. and Austin, J. S. (1971), "The Demand for Housing: a Comment," Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp.410-413.

75. Man, J. Y. and Bell, M. E. (1996), "The Impact of Local scales Tax on the Value of Owner-Occupied Housing," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol.39, No. 2, pp.114-130.

76. Mayo, S. K. (1981), "Theory and Estimation in Housing Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.95-116.

77. McFadden, D. (1973), "Conditional Logit Analysis and Qualitative Choice Behavior," in Frontiers in Economics, Ed. P. Zaremka, Academic Press, New York, pp.105-142.

78. McFadden, D. (1978), "Modeling the Choice of Residential Location," Transportation Research Record, Vol.673, No. 1, pp.72-77.

79. McFadden, D., and Manski, C. F. (1981), "Econometric Models of Probability Choice and Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Choice," in C. Manski and D. McFadden, eds., Economic Applications, MIT Press, pp.243-246.

80. McLeod, P. B. and Ellis, J. R. (1983), "Alternative Approaches to the Family Life Cycle in the Analysis of Housing Consumption," Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol.45, No.3, pp.699-708.

81. Megbolugbe, I. F., Mark, A. P. and Schwartz, M. B. (1991), "The Economic Theory of Housing Demand: A Critical Review," The Journal of Real Estate Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.381-393.

82. Michelson, R. S. (1977), Environmental Choice, Human Behavior and Residential Satisfaction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

83. Mills, E.S. and Hamilton, B. W. (1994), Urban Economics, 5th ed., Harper Collins College Publishers, NY.

84. Murray, T. J., Pipino, L. L. and Gigch, J. P. (1985), "A Pilot Study of Fuzzy Set Modification of Delphi," Human Systems Management, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp.76-80.

85. Muth, R. (1960), "The Demand for Nonfarm Housing," A.C. Harberger, ed., The Demand for Durable Goods, University of Chicago Press.

86. Muth, R. (1969), City and Housing, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILL.

87. Olsson, U., Drasgow, F. and Dorans, N. J. (1982), "The Polymeric Correlation Coefficient", Psychometrika, Vol.47, No. 3, pp.337-347.

88. Payne, J. W. (1982), "Contingent Decision Behavior," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp.382-402.

89. Quigley, J. M. (1976), "Housing Demand in the Short Run: An analysis of Polytomous Choice," Economic Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.76-102.

90. Quigley, J. M. (1985), "Consumer Choice of Dwelling, Neighborhood and Public Services," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp.41-63.

91. Reid, M. G. (1962), Housing and Income, University of Chicago published.

92. Richardson, R. A. (1971), Urban Land Economics and Public Policy, The Free Press Collier Macmillan LTD.

93. Rider R. and Henning, J. (1967), "The Determinants of Residential Property Value with Special References to Air Pollution," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp.147-157.

94. Robbins, S. P. and DeCenzo, D. A. (1998), Fundamentals of Management: Essential Concepts and Applications, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

95. Robinson, R. (1979), Housing Economics and Public Policy, The Macmillan Press.

96. Rosen S. (1974), "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, Vol.32, No. 1, pp.34-35.

97. Rouwendal, J. (1988), Discrete Choice Models and Housing Market Analysis, Ph.D. Dissertation, Free University (Vrije Universiteit), Amsterdam.

98. Saaty, T. L. (1980), The Analytic Hierarchy Process, McGraw-Hill, New York.

99. Scheaffer, R. L., Mendenhall, W. and Ott, L. Y. (1990), Elementary Survey Sampling, Boston: PWS-KENT.

100. Seko, M. (1991), "The Effect of Inflation on Japanese Homeownership Rates: Evidence from Time-Series," Economic Studies Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp.155-163.

101. Shalton, J. P. (1968),"The Cost of Renting Versus Owning a House," Land Economics, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp.59-72.

102. Sugeno, M. (1972), "Fuzzy Measure and Fuzzy Integral," Transactions of Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.218-226.

103. Small, K. A. and Rosen, H. S. (1981), "Applied Welfare Economics with Discrete Choice Models," Econometrica, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp.105-130.

104. Tam, C. M. and Fung, W. H. (1996), "Assessing Safety Performance by Fuzzy Reasoning," Asia Pacific Building and Construction Management Journal, Vol.2, No.1, pp.6-13.

105. Tanaka, H., Uejima, S. and Asai, K. (1982),"Linear Regression Analysis with Fuzzy Model," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp.903-907.

106. Tanaka, K. (1997), An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic for Practical Applications, Springer-Verlag, Rassel, Inc., Japan.

107. Tiebout, C. (1956), "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditure," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 64, No.4, pp.416-424.

108. Tong, M. and Bonissone, P. P. (1980), "A Linguistic Approach to Decision Making with Fuzzy Sets," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Vol.10, No. 5, pp.716-723.

109. Timmermans and Noortwijk (1995), "Context Dependencies in Housing Choice Behavior," Environment and Planning, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.181-192.

110. Tu, Y. (1994), "Modeling Household Housing Choice Behavior: some Conception Discussions," The First Annual Conference Paper of Asian Real Estate Society.

111. Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1979), "Preference Trees," Psychological Review, Vol.86, No. 4, pp.542-573.

112. Van Laarhoven, P. J. M. and Pedrycz, W. (1983), A fuzzy extension of Saaty's.

113. Waddell, P. (1989), Factors Determining Household choices of Residence, Workplace and Housing Tenure, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Dallas.

114. Wheaton, W. C. (1977), "A Bit Rent Approach to Housing Demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.200-217.

115. William, Linda B. (1990), Development, Demography, and Family Decision-Making: the Status of Women in Rural Java, Westview Press, pp.9-98.

116. Xu, R. and Zhai, X. (1992), "Extensions of the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Fuzzy Environment," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp.251-257.

117. Yager, R. R. (1981), "A New Methodology for Ordinal Multiobjective Decisions Based on Fuzzy Sets," Decision Science, Vol.12, No. 4, pp.589-600.

118. Zadeh, L. A. (1965), "Fuzzy Set," Information and Control, Vol.8, pp.338-353.

119. Zadeh, L. A. (1975), "The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Application to Approximate Reasoning, I, II, III," Information Science, Vol. 8, pp.199-251, pp.301-357; Vol. 9, pp.43-80.

120. Zadeh, L. A. (1993), "Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision Processes," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp.28-44.

121. Zadeh, L. A. (1994), "The Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Applications to Approximate Reasoning," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 68, No. 1, pp.1-11.

122. Zimmerman, H. J. (1985), Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Applications, Kluwer-Nijhoff, Boston, pp.121.

123. Zimmerman, H. J. (1987), Fuzzy Sets, Decision Making, and Expert Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp.23-41 & 176.

124. Zimmermann, H. J. (1991), Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts, U.S.A.


(三)日文部分
1.小川圭一(1999),「使用模糊積分型效用函數之路徑選擇行為模型」,日本模糊會誌,第11卷第4期,第690至694頁。

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 3 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200910374225
論文名稱(中文) 剛性鋪面受糙度與移動車體質量引發動態荷重影響分析
論文名稱(英文) Analysis of Vehicle-Pavement Interaction Due to Roughness
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 91
學期 2
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 周鎰鋐
學號 n6690138
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2003-06-24
論文頁數 64頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭振銘
口試委員-蕭志銘
口試委員-余志鵬
關鍵字(中) 車路互制
動態荷重
剛性鋪面
有限元素
關鍵字(英) dynamic load
rigid pavement
finite element
ABAQUS
vehicle-road interaction
學科別分類
中文摘要 車輛荷重是影響鋪面應力與壽命的最關鍵因素,然而鋪面實際受力大小實為車輛與鋪面耦合系統中的互制力,為了解此一互制力的大小與特性,本文採用有限元素軟體ABAQUS建立剛性鋪面與移動車體質量之三維互制模型,模擬鋪面平坦度引起之動態荷重。初步完成四分車模型,輪胎由一線性彈簧與集中質量構成,車輪上方以一組線性彈簧及阻尼器形成懸吊系統,連接模擬車體集中質量的質點。剛性鋪面以三維二十點元素置於以凱爾文模式模擬具線性黏彈性質的基礎土壤上。最後,透過正弦波模擬不同鋪面糙度,進行移動車體的動力分析。模型分析通過與耦合模型動力分析之解析解驗證,更進一步模擬S122聯結車,歸納參數分析結果,從車路耦合動力分析角度探討重車對鋪面應力與壽命的影響。
關鍵字:ABAQUS、車路互制、動態荷重、剛性鋪面、有限元素
英文摘要 Dynamic load is the most important factor for stress prediction and life assessment of pavements. The dynamic effect cannot be resolved with either isolated pavement system or vehicle kinematic formation because vehicles and pavements are coupled as an interaction system. This article describes simulation of the coupled system and analysis of the impact force associated by moving vehicle and pavement roughness. A quarter-car model was built with a linear spring and a mass element as half of wheel axle, and a spring-dashpot system as vehicle suspension connecting the lumped car mass and the wheel axle. The concrete pavement was composed of 20-node brick elements resting on springs and dashpots. The pavement elevation was input according to sinusoidal curve to simulate surface irregularities. The model was successfully validated with theoretical solutions and was further expanded to a S122 tractor-trailer model. The dynamic effect and coupled interaction were thoughtfully discussed.
Keyword: ABAQUS, vehicle-road interaction, dynamic load, rigid pavement, finite element.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 文獻回顧 1
1-2 研究動機 3
1-3 研究目標 4
1-4 研究範圍與方法 5
1-5 論文架構與流程圖 6
第二章 有限元素法互制模型介紹 10
2-1 ABAQUS接觸滑動模式 10
2-2 ABAQUS互制模型建立 12
2-2-1 ABAQUS元素的選用 12
2-2-2 ABAQUS車體與鋪面模型 14
2-2-3 路表糙度產生方式 16
2-3 ABAQUS接觸滑動模式動態分析參數控制 18
2-4 分析比較項目與符號 20
第三章 模型驗證 21
3-1 二維車體模型經糙度引發動態反應之驗證 21
3-2 三維剛性鋪面受移動車體質量靜態平衡驗證 24
3-3 三維剛性鋪面受移動車體質量之有限元素模型驗證 27
第四章 四分車互制模型應用 31
4-1 四分車互制模型 31
4-2 分析時間增量比較 33
4-3 四分車行經平滑路表分析 35
4-3-2 車體質量比較 37
4-3-3 車體速度比較 39
4-4 四分車行經起伏路表分析 42
4-4-1 路表波形振幅比較 42
4-4-2 路表波形頻率比較 44
第五章 S122車互制模型應用 50
5-1 S122半聯結車模型互制模型 50
5-2 分析時間增量比較 53
5-3 S122車體行經平滑路表分析 55
5-4 S122車體行經起伏路表頻率分析 58
5-5 S122車體行經現地量測路表分析 60
第六章 結論與建議 62
6-1 結論 62
6-2 建議 64
參考文獻 65
參考文獻 ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual Version 6.3

Chatti, Karrim, Lysmer, J., and Monismith, Carl L., “Dynamic Finite-Element Analysis of Jointed Concrete Pavements,” Transportation Research Record , 1449,pp. 79-90, 1994

Hardy, M. S. A. and Cebon, D., ”Response of Continuous Pavements to Moving Dynamics Loads,” ASCE J. Engng. Mechanics, 119(9),1762-1780, 1993

Hardy, M. S. A. and Cebon,D. ”Importance of Speed and Frequency in Flexible Pavement Response,” ASCE J. Engng. Mechanics, 120(3), 463-482, 1994

Huang, M.-H. and Thambiratnam, D. P., “Dynamic Response of Plates on Elastic Foundation to Moving Loads,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128(9), pp1016-1022, 2002

Huang, Yang Hsien ,”Pavement Analysis and Design”, Prentice Hall Inc., 1993.

Lieh, Junghsen and Qi, Weigang , ”Simulation of Dynamic Truck Loading on Pavements Using Measured Road Roughness,” Transportation Research Record,1501, pp13-21, 1995.

Liu, Chiu and Herman, Robert, ”Roadway-Vehicle Interaction, Physical Indexes, and Human Judgment of Ride Quality,” Transportation Research Record, 1570, pp. 55-59, 1997

Liu, Chiu, associate members, ASCE, and Gazis, Denos, ”Surface Roughness Effect on Dynamic Response of Pavements,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 125(4), pp332-337, 1999

Liu, Chiu, P.E., McCullough, B. Frank, P.E. and Oey, Hong S., P.E., members, ASCE, ”Response of Rigid Pavements Due to Vehicle-Road Interaction,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 126(3), 237-242, 2000

Mikhail, Magdy Y. and Mamlouk, Michael S., “Effect of Vehicle-Pavement Interaction on Pavement Response,” Transportation Research Record, 1570, pp. 78-88, 1997

Nasim, Muhammad A., Karamihas, Steven M., Gillespie, Thomas D., Hansen, Will, and Cebon, David, “Behavior of Rigid Pavement Under Moving Dynamic Loads,” Transportation Research Record, 1307,pp. 129-135, 1992

Papagianninakis, A. T. and Gujarathi, M. S. ,”Roughness Model Describing Heavy Vehicle-Pavement Interaction,” Transportation Research Record, 1501,pp 50-59,1995

Todd, Kevin B. and Kulalowski, Bohdan T. , “Simple Computer Model for Prediction Ride Quality and Pavement Loading for Heavy Trucks,” Transportation Research Record, 1215, pp137-150, 1989

Taheri,M. R., and Ting, E. C.”Dynamic Response of Plates to Moving Loads:Finite Element Method,” comp. & struct., 34(3), pp. 509-521, 1990

Taheri, M. R. and Zaman, M. M.,”Effects of a Moving Aircraft and Temperature Differential on Response of Rigid Pavements,” Computers & Structures, 57(3), PP503-511,1995

Wu, Chih-Ping and Shen, Pao-Anne,”Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Pavements Subjected to Moving Loads,” Journal of transportation Engineering, 122(5), 367-373, 1995

Zaman, Musharraf and Alvappillai, Arumugam ,”Contact-Element Model for Dynamic Analysis of Jointed Concrete Pavements,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, 121(5), 1995

邱垂德,「路面平坦度驗收規範之檢討研究」,交通部台灣區國道新建工程局研究報告122,2000

張其教、張家瑞、宏竟聰與林志棟,「鋪面粗糙度量側記評估指標探討」,中華道路, 第三十八卷第四期, pp30-40, 1999

張孟孔、周家蓓,「鋪面糙度與動態荷重互制模式之建立」,國立台灣大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 ,1995

趙濟海、王哲人、關朝靂,「路面不平度的測量 分析與應用」,北京理工大學出版社,2000

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 4 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200910440412
論文名稱(中文) 銥錳/玻鏌合金之交換異向性研究:利用多層膜方式成長[Mn/Ir]反鐵磁層
論文名稱(英文) Study of exchange bias in IrMn/NiFe using multilayer growth of [Mn/Ir] antiferromagnetic layer
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Physics
學年度 91
學期 2
出版年 92
研究生(中文) 張家瑞
學號 l2689115
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2003-07-24
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃榮俊
口試委員-林明發
口試委員-吳仲卿
關鍵字(中) 交換偏移場,銥
關鍵字(英) exchange bias
Ir
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究係以分子束磊晶方法(MBE)成長高品質之[IrxMn100-x/Ni80Fe20]薄膜系統,藉著改變不同參數來探討此系統之交換耦合偏移效應。
分析上我們利用X-ray繞射儀(XRD)來確定其磊晶關係及晶體結構,磁性方面則是利用磁光柯爾效應儀(MOKE)量測其磁滯曲線。
實驗中的反鐵磁層(IrxMn100-x)採用multilayer的成長方式,希望藉著Mn厚度的變化,能得到較理想的比例控制。論文中也將討論改變多層膜中Ir及Mn的成長順序以及反鐵磁層的成長溫度對樣品磁性的影響。
英文摘要 We have investigated the exchange bias effect on [IrxMn100-x/Ni80Fe20]
system grown by MBE with different experiment factors.
The epitaxy relation and crystalline structure were measured by X-ray deffraction ,and the magnetic properties of [IrxMn100-x/Ni80Fe20] system were measured by magnetic-optical kerr effect(MOKE).
We used multilayer method to grow [Ir/Mn]N antiferromagnetic layer, the ratio of IrxMn100-x was controlled by changing the thickness of Mn. We also discussed the influences on magnetic properties of samples by changing the sequence of Mn and Ir in multilayer and the different growth temperature of antiferromagnetic layer.
論文目次 第一章 簡介
1-1前言 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1-2交換磁異向性與自旋閥糸統 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
1-3不同反鐵磁性材料之簡介 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧6
1-4相關文獻回顧 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧9
1-5研究動機 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧12
第二章 磁異向性介紹與量測
2-1 磁異向性介紹 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧13
【A】磁晶異向性 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧14
【B】形狀異向性 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
【C】應力磁異向性 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 21
【D】交換磁異向性 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 27
2-2 磁異向性量測 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧34

第三章 實驗儀器介紹
3-1 分子束磊晶系統 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧39
3-2 實驗量測儀器 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧45
3-3 實驗步驟 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧59
第四章 結果與討論
4-0 引言 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧63
4-1不同的[Mn/Ir]N多層膜(multilayer)磊晶結構對交換磁偏移場影響之研究 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧65
4-2改變多層膜(multilayer)中Ir及Mn之成長順序對交換磁偏移場之
影響 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧77
4-3改變多層膜(multilayer)中Mn的厚度變化對交換磁偏移場影響之
研究 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧88
4-4不同的[Mn/Ir]N多層膜(multilayer)成長溫度對交換磁偏移場影
響之研究 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧99
第五章 結論 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ ‧‧‧‧‧‧104
參考文獻 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ ‧‧‧‧‧‧105
表目錄
表2-1.1 Fe與Ni之磁異向常數………………………………..…….…………..14
表2-1.2 K1、K2值與磁難易軸之關係………………………….…………….…..15
表3.1.1 幫浦系統……………………………………………….………..………....39
表4-1.1 [Mn/Ir]10/ Ni80Fe20 /Mo糸統成長於不同基板之磊晶關係 .…..72
表4-1.2 [Mn/Ir]10/ Ni80Fe20 /Mo糸統成長於不同基板之He關係 …..75
表4-3.1 不同厚度的Mn與週期N和反鐵磁層[Mn/Ir]N多層膜的總厚度
之關係……………….………………………………………….…… ...89
表4-3.2 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同厚度的Mn之樣品對應合金成份比例之關係…………………………………………………………… 92
表4-3.3 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同的Mn厚度之樣品所對應之He關係..94
圖目錄
圖1-2.1 (1)強磁下低溫冷卻(~77∘K)後的磁滯曲線……..….………….3
(2) 未經加場冷卻後的磁滯曲線
圖1-2.2 自旋閥結構示意圖……………………….………..…………………....4
圖1-2.3 交換偏移自旋閥系統之M-H與R-H圖…..……….….…………...5
圖1-3.4 自旋閥的一般結構………………………………………….…………...7
圖1-3.5 交換偏移自旋閥系統之M-H與R-H圖………………….……… ....8
圖1-4.1 不同buffer layer之MOKE圖…………………………………...10
圖1-4.2 不同buffer layer之XRD圖………………………………………....10
圖1-4.3 (a) γ-phase Mn100-xTMx 合金的Néel Temperature....…….….11
(b) γ-phase Mn100-xTMx 合金的 晶格常數
圖2-1.1 (a)Fe與(b)Ni的單晶晶體在不同晶軸方向的磁化曲線…….16
圖2-1.2 Co的單晶晶體在不同晶軸方向的磁化曲線圖…………….17
圖2-1.3 棒狀磁鐵於去磁場時其磁力線分佈…………………….………..18
圖2-1.4 棒狀磁鐵內部磁感應場分佈圖…………….……..………..……...19
圖2-1.5 Prolate spheroid………………………………………………..……....20
圖2-1.6 68 permalloy(Ni68Fe20)在外加張力時 之磁化過程………21
圖2-1.7 Ni在外加張力(tesile)(+)及壓縮(compressive)(-)
時對磁滯曲線的影響…………………………………...…...22.
圖2-1.8 λ為正值之材料在受到張力時對磁化曲線的效應…………22
圖2-1.9 λsiσ為正值,在應力作用下磁性材料的磁化示意圖……...25
圖2-1.10 λsiσ為負值,在應力作用下磁性材料的磁化示意圖……...26
圖2-1.11 簡化的交換場模型圖………………………………………… 27
圖2-1.12 理想界面模型圖……………………………………………….28
圖2-1.13 理想界面模型單位面積界面能……………………………… 29
圖2-1.14 (a)(b)理想界面模型(c) 磁區壁模型………………………… 30
圖2-1.15 混亂磁區模型中粗糙界面處的自旋組態……………… ……32
圖2-2.1 理想單軸磁異向性晶體磁化曲線示意圖…………………….37
圖3-1.1 分子束磊晶系統……………..………………………………….……..40
圖3.1.2 (a)分子源坩堝之圖示……………….……………………….……..42
(b) 電子槍靠近坩堝附近之圖示………………………..….…….. 43
圖3-2.1 (a) 反射光在極化方向的改變
(b) Polar Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect,PMOKE
(c) Longitudinal Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect,LMOKE
(d) Transfers Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect,TMOKE……….. 47
圖3-2.2 LMOKE及PMOKE裝置示意圖…………………………….48
圖3-2.3 起偏鏡與檢偏鏡偏振方向示意圖…………………………….50
圖3-2.4 X-ray繞射原理圖……………………………………….……52
圖3-2.5 Contact mode AFM掃瞄原理……………………………… 56
圖3-2.6 Non-Contact mode AFM掃瞄原理……………………………57
圖4-1.1 樣品組成示意圖……………………………………………….65
圖4-1.2 [Mn/Ir]10/ Ni80Fe20/Mo系統成長於Al2O3 (11-20) 基板上之x-ray繞射圖…………………………………………………………67
圖4-1.3 [Mn/Ir]10/ Ni80Fe20/Mo系統成長於Al2O3 (1-102) 基板上之x-ray繞射圖…………………………………………………………69
圖4-1.4 hcp Al2O3與bcc Metal(如Mo、Ta)異質磊晶結構中的三維磊晶關係…………………………………………………………...70
圖4-1.5 (a)薄膜遭受來自基板一維方向之應力的幾何圖形
(b) 晶體幾何關係圖…………………………………..……..70
圖4-1.6 [Mn/Ir]10/ Ni80Fe20/Mo系統成長於MgO(100) 基板上之x-ray繞射圖…………………………………………………………71
圖4-1.7 三組不同基板的樣品之AFM圖形………………….……….73
圖4-1.8 [Mn/Ir]N /[Ni80Fe20]/Mo成長在不同基板之易軸磁滯曲線圖…75
圖4-2.1 不同成長順序之實驗示意圌………………………………… 78
圖4-2.2 樣品A([Mn/Ir]12)及樣品B([Ir/Mn]12)之薄膜成長示意圌……. .79
圖4-2.3 (A)樣品之X-ray繞射圖…………………………………………81
圖4-2.4 (B)樣品之X-ray繞射圖…………………………………………82
圖4-2.5 樣品A([Mn/Ir]12)及樣品B([Ir/Mn]12) X-ray繞射圖之比較……83
圖4-2.6 樣品A([Mn/Ir]12)及樣品B([Ir/Mn]12) 之磁滯曲線圖…….…….84
圖4-2.7 樣品A([Mn/Ir]12)及樣品B([Ir/Mn]12) 交換場大小之比較 ….85
圖4-3.1 不同成分比例之薄膜成長示意圌………………………………88
圖4-3.2 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同的Mn厚度之樣品所對應之x-ray繞射圖……………………………………………………………… 90
圖4-3.3 MnIr fcc(222)繞射峰的2θ偏移示意圖……………………..… 91
圖4-3.4 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同厚度的Mn之樣品所對應之磁滯曲線圖……………………………………………………………… 93
圖4-3.5 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同的Mn厚度之樣品所對應之易軸磁滯曲線比較圖……………………………………………………….…94
圖4-3.6 [Mn/Ir]N多層膜中不同的Mn厚度之樣品所對應之He、Hc圖.95
圖4-3.7 NiFe/NiFeMn的交換偏移糸統中之雙偏移磁滯曲線圖……… 95
圖4-3.8 MnIr/ NiFe的交換偏移糸統中磁疇之示意圖………….………97
圖4-4.1 溫度楔 (temperture wedge) 之實驗示意圖…………………...100
圖4-4.2 樣品不同成長溫度之區間圖示…………………………….….101
圖4-4.3 樣品利用LMOKE量測之易軸磁滯曲線圖…….…………….102
參考文獻 [1]M.N. Baibich, J.M. Broto, A. Fert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61,2472(1988)
[2]D.E. Heim, IEEE Trans. Magn., 30, 316(1994)
[3]Robert L. White, IEEE Trans. Magn., 30, 346(1994)
[4]S.S.P. Parkin, Phys. Rev. Lett., 67, 3598(1991)
[5]Jian-Qing Wang and Gang Xiao, Phys. Rev. B, 49(6), 3982(1994)
[6]T. Valet and A. Fert, Phys. Rev. B, 48(10), 7099(1993)
[7]J.L. Fly, E.C. Ethridge, P.M. Levy, and Y. Wang, J. Appl. Phys., 69, 4780(1991)
[8]W.H. Meiklejohn and C.P. Bean, Phys. Rev.102 (1956)1413, Phys. Rev. 105(1957)904.
[9] J.Nogués, Ivan K. Schuller , J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 192, 203 (1999)
[10] A.E. Berkowitz, Kentaro Takano, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 552 (1999)
[11]B.Dieny, V.S. Speriosu et al., Phys. Rev. B 43, 1297 (1991)
[12]J.C.S Kools, IEEE Trans. Magn., 32, 3165(1996)
[13]M.J.Carey , N.Smith, B.A.Gurney, J.R.Childress and T.Lin, “Thermally-assisted decay of pinning in polycrystalline exchange biased systems,“presented at the 2001 MMM-Intermag Conference Proc.,J.Appl.Phys.,2001
[14]J.van Driel ,F.R.de Bore, M.H.Lenssen, and R.Coehoorn, J.Appl.Phys.88,975(2000)
[15]R.Nakatani, H.Hoshiya, K.Hoshino and Y.Sugita, IEEE Trans.Magn, VOL 33. NO 5(1997)
[16]M.Pakala, Y.Huai, G.Anderson, and L.Miloslavsky, J.Appl.Phys.87.6653(2000)
[17]J. C. Ro, Y .S. Choi, S. J. Suh, and H. J. Lee, IEEE Trans Magn, 35, 3925(1999)
[18]A. J. Devasahayam, P. J. Sides, and M. H. Kryder, J.Appl.Phys. 83, 7216 (1998)
[19]T. Yamaoka, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn.. 36, 445 (1974)
[20] T. Yamaoka, M. Mekata, and H. Takaki, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn. 31, 301 (1971)
[21] [34].K. Sasao , R.Yamauchi and K. Gukamichi , IEEE Teans.Magn.35 , 3910 (1999)
[22]I. Tomeno, H. N. Fuke, H. Iwasaki, M. Sahashi and Y. Tsunoda, J.Appl.Phys. 86, 3853 (1999)
[23]Y. M. Hu, J. C. A. Huang, C. C. Yu and C. H. Tsao, IEEE Trans.Magn. 33, 3952 (1997)
[24] J. C. A. Huang, C. H. Tsao, and C. C. Yu, IEEE Trans.Magn 35, 2931 (1999)
[25] J. C. A. Huang, H. C. Chiu, J.Magn.Magn.Mater. 209, 106 (2000)
[26] J. C. A. Huang, C. C. Yu, and C. H. Lee, J.Appl.Phys. 87, 4921 (2000)
[27]C. H. Lai, S. A. Chen, J. C. A. Huang, J.Magn.Magn.Mater. 209, 122 (2000)
[28] C. H. Lai, S. A. Chen, J. C. A. Huang, J.Appl.Phys. 87, 6656 (2000)
[29] Soshin Chikazumi 著,張煦、李學養 譯 磁性物理學,52,經連出版社(1981)
[30] Cullity,”Introduction to magnetic materials”.
[31] Sóshin Chikazumi and Stanley H.Charap,”Physics of Magnetism”
[32] Stoner,E.C., ”The Demagnetizing Factors for Ellipsoids”, Phil.Mag.7,36,803 (1945)
[33] See e.g., “Molecular Beam Epitaxy”, ed. By M.A. Herman and H. sitter (Berlin Springer,1989)
[34] P.M. Levy, S. Zhang and A. Fert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65 ,1643(1995)
[35] . A. Vedyayev, B. Dieny and N. Ryzhanova. Europhys. Lett. 19, 329 (1992)
[36] R.Q. Hood and L.M. Falicov, Phys. Rev. B. 46 859 (1992)
[37] S. Zhang and P.M. Levy, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 313,53 (1993)
[38] See e.g., “Molecular Beam Epitaxy”, ed. By M.A. Herman and H. sitter (Berlin Springer,1989)
[39] J.P. Qian and G.C. Wang , J. Van Sci. Technol. A8, 4117(1990)
[40] Voigt. W, “Magneto and Electro Optic”, Teubner, Leiptig (1908)
[41] Hulme, H.R. “Farady effect in ferromagnetics”, Pro. Roy. Soc, A135,237(1932).
[42] M.J. Freiser, IEEE Trans. Magn., MAG-4(2), 152(1968).
[43] Y. Souche, J.M. Alameda, Materials Research Society, 150,165.

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 5 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200911334424
論文名稱(中文) 水利堤防孔洞檢測分析及其資料庫建立之研究
論文名稱(英文) none
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 陳敬寬
學號 n6885105
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-06-17
論文頁數 179頁
口試委員 口試委員-陳景文
口試委員-謝啟萬
指導教授-倪勝火
口試委員-陳志南
口試委員-宋見春
關鍵字(中) 透地雷達
孔洞
資料庫
非破壞性檢測
關鍵字(英) GPR
holes
NDT

Database
學科別分類
中文摘要   台灣地區由於地勢陡峭地質脆弱,更因颱風豪雨侵襲容易造成水利堤防的加速破壞,因此如何迅速正確檢測出其內部孔洞之位置與範圍,以利及時有效防止意外災害的突然發生,是水利堤防施工完成後維護管理中重要的任務。目前非破壞性檢測的方法雖多,但因各種方法都有其優缺點及使用上的限制,為了符合本研究經濟性、便利性、適用性和即時性的考量,經比較評估結果能夠實際應用在堤防內部掏空調查及非破壞性分析等案例,則以透地雷達撿測法較佳。此外使用該法檢測所得的雷達影像剖面容易瞭解與判釋,且其解析能力高,確可對堤防內部孔洞做較詳實的描述,故後續是以透地雷達作為檢測分析的工具。

  本研究首先從透地雷達的相關理論、檢測原理及資料處理等進行探討,並由模擬孔洞試驗建立定性的判釋準則發現,掃瞄雷達影像剖面之繞射雙曲線必定落在孔洞外側,其孔洞位置將與雙曲線頂點相互對應,且孔洞大小會與雙曲線之正焦弦長成正比,使用上述兩項特性發展一種數值迴歸分析方法建立不同覆土深、孔徑與雙曲線正焦弦間的三維關係後,即可由工地掃瞄的雷達影像繞射雙曲線直接量化評估孔洞的直徑和回填體積,該法經現場測試孔徑誤差 ,案例探討預估孔徑誤差 ,實際驗證結果確可提供養護工程維修設計及施工執行的參考。

  另外為了進一步因應水利建造物整體資料管理作業的需要,本研究延續一套整合性的地理資訊系統(GIS),先將研究範圍內之環境現況、行政區域與水系等資料數位化建成圖層,再配合全球衛星定位系統(GPS)進行水利堤防孔洞定位套疊整合,即可將現場透地雷達(GPR)檢測分析處理的情形,建檔鏈結成一套3G(GIS/GPS/GPR)的孔洞資料庫,能隨時提供管理者決策和使用者查詢的參考,並有效提昇全面檢測及維修之效益。


英文摘要  Hydraulic embankments in Taiwan damage very often due to steep terrain, frail geology and torrent of rain that induced by typhoon. In order to prevent the flood disasters effectively, the problem of how to rapidly and correctly detect the position and depth of the internal holes of hydraulic embankments is the main concern. There are many non-destructive detection methods that can be applied in detecting internal empty holes in the structures. All of those methods have their own advantage, disadvantage and limitation. In order to conform to the efficiency, convenience, serviceability and instantaneity of this study, the ground penetration radar (GPR) method is the most suitable method after the evaluation of applicability and analysis in the investigation of internal empty holes in the hydraulic embankments. Besides, the logging images of soil profile retrieved from the GPR method are easy to understand and distinguish, and the resolution of GPR method is good for describing the details of the internal holes of hydraulic embankments. According to the above reasons, mainly the GPR method is applied in this study.

 This study starts with the electromagnetic field related theory, the detection method and the data processing principle. Based on the GPR test experiments of simulated empty underground holes, the qualitative criteria of discrimination are found and established. The discrimination criteria show that the refraction curve from the GPR logging image is a hyperbolic curve and falls back on the outside of hole. Besides, the depth of the top of the hole is at the hyperbolic curve apex, and the size of the hole is proportional to the latus rectum length. Based on the above characteristics, the relations of the depth of internal empty hole of hydraulic embankment, the diameter of hole and the latus rectum length are established using the regressive analysis method. By the established relation, some examples were used to evaluate the buried pipe depth and diameter and the results show that the error of evaluation of in-situ excavation test is around while this of the buried pipes is about . The evaluation of in-situ excavation test confirms the applicability of the analysis method applied as the references for maintenances of hydraulic infrastructure and for new construction.

 In order to achieve the demands of the data management operations of hydraulic infrastructures, this study adopts a set of integrated geographic information system (GIS). Firstly, the digitized layer information based on the current environment, administrative division and aquatic environment has to be established. Secondly, the global positioning system (GPS) is used to identify the position of empty holes of hydraulic embankments, and mark the position on the integrated GIS system. Finally, the in-situ GPR test results, the integrated GIS system and the GPS system are combined together as a set of 3G (GIS/GPS/GPR) database. This database will be applied as the user query system or the reference for making a strategic decision, and it will bring a great benefit in examination and maintenance of hydraulic embankment.


論文目次 提要Ⅰ
誌謝IV
目錄Ⅴ
表目錄Ⅸ
圖目錄X
照片目錄XIII
符號說XIV

第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機和目的 1
1-2 研究方法和步驟 2
1-3 論文架構與內容 3

第二章 透地雷達相關理論及回顧 5
2-1 非破壞檢測技術探討 5
2-1-1 透地雷達法 5
2-1-2 跨孔超音波檢測法 6
2-1-3 音波回應法 7
2-1-4 暫態彈性波法 7
2-1-5 敲擊回音法 8
2-1-6 表面波譜法 9
2-1-7 紅外線影像法 9
2-2 孔洞檢測方法比較與評估 10
2-3 透地雷達主要應用範疇回顧 10
2-3-1 地下不明物體調查 11
2-3-2 地下水位及含水量變化偵測 13
2-3-3 地層構造調查 14
2-3-4 混凝土裂縫和道路鋪面調查 16
2-3-5 考古及遺址探測 17
2-3-6 壩體掏空及異常偵測 18
2-3-7 岩體裂隙、岩盤斷層偵測 18
2-3-8 河床、湖底地形測繪 19
2-3-9 隧道工程襯砌檢測 20
2-3-10 樓版鋼筋位置探測 21
2-3-11 其他 22
2-4 透地雷達相關理論探討 23
2-4-1 電磁波基本原理論 23
2-4-2 馬克斯威爾方程式 24
2-4-3 電磁波的介質傳播及波速求法 26
2-4-4 地層介質影響參數及檢測限制 33
2-4-5 透地雷達檢測原理及影像處理 37

第三章 定性模擬試驗與判釋準則之建立 53
3-1 檢測儀器及設備 53
3-2 定性模擬試驗方法與步驟 56
3-2-1 試驗方法 56
3-2-2 參數設定 60
3-2-3 定性模擬試驗步驟 66
3-3 定性模擬試驗結果與討論 70
3-3-1 混凝土版下孔洞模擬試驗 70
3-3-2 單排管狀孔洞模擬試驗 71
3-3-3 雙排管狀孔洞模擬試驗 72
3-3-4 孔洞是否有水模擬試驗 73
3-4 案例分析暨判釋準則建立 8
3-4-1 檢測地點 84
3-4-2 檢測結果 84
3-4-3 分析與討論 84

第四章 定量模擬試驗成果分析與評估 92
4-1 定量模擬試驗方法與步驟 92
4-2 定量模擬試驗結果與分析 93
4-2-1 定量模擬試驗結果 93
4-2-2 孔洞大小的分析 98
4-2-3 現場測試與討論 108
4-3 案例探討與評估 110
4-4 迴歸分析及結果討論 113

第五章 孔洞資料庫之建立 117
5-1 資料庫架構及內容 117
5-1-1 資料庫架構 117
5-1-2 資料庫內容 119
5-2 基礎理論說明 120
5-2-1 GIS理論 121
5-2-2 GPS定位原理 122
5-2-3 GIS/GPS系統整合 126
5-3 資料庫設計與建置 128
5-3-1 系統環境說明 128
5-3-2 統一資料格式 129
5-3-3 資料庫建置 130
5-4 系統執行與測試 131
5-4-1 功能模組說明 131
5-4-2 系統執行資料管理 140
5-4-3 系統測試 140

第六章 結論與建議 143
6-1 結論 143
6-2 建議 145

參考文獻 146
附錄 雙曲線參數式與替代式之轉換分析 163
參考文獻 1.于瑞佐,「以彈性波偵測體內空洞之研究」,國立臺灣大學應用力學研究所碩士論文 (1991)。
2.王惠濂,「探地雷達目的體物理模擬研究結果」,地球科學-中國地質大學學報,第18卷,第3期,第266-284頁 (1993)。
3.王思堯,「透地雷達法於土木工程檢測之應用」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1997)。
4.王耀德,「透地雷達在工程上之應用及其影像資料處理管理系統之建立」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (1999)。
5.王瑞民,「地理資訊系統」,高立圖書有限公司 (2001)。
6.安守中,「GPS全球衛星定位系統入門」,全華科技圖書股份有限公司 (2002)。
7.李永勳編譯,電磁學,第二版,愛迪生維斯理朗文及偉明圖書有限公司合作出版 (1996)。
8.李桂潨,「透地雷達在土木工程應用上之初步研究」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (1996)。
9.李焜發、宣大衡、巫國華,「透地雷達解析技術,探採研究彙報」,第22期,第319-340頁 (1999)。
10.李德河、林宏明、羅經書、王耀德,「透地雷達應用於並排管線與地下孔洞之探測」,第八屆大地工程學術研究討論會論文集,第2257-2270頁 (1999)。
11.李吉龍,「高科技園區環境微震監測系統之程式發展」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
12.李錫堤、黃慈銘、廖啟雯、陳宏仁,「地下地質資料庫系統的建置與應用-以台北盆地為例」,地工技術,第89期,第13-26頁 (2002)。
13.施議傑,「透地雷達試驗結果判釋之初步研究」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
14.吳政忠、劉佩玲、王俊揚、童建樺,「混凝土強度非破壞檢測法」,第一屆(1999)公共工程非破壞檢測技術研討會論文集,第29-47頁 (1999)。
15.吳皇旗,「GPS/GIS/RS於高雄捷運系統大寮主機廠基礎地層潛在災害特性之分析研究」,國立屏東科技大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
16.吳明儒,「透地雷達於污染及廢棄物之檢測應用」,國立中央大學應用地質所碩士論文 (2001)。
17.邱景升、周宜強,「地理資訊系統入門與應用—MapInfo」,松崗電腦圖書公司 (1995)。
18.邱君豪,「應用透地雷達探測地下埋設物及地層構造物之研究」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (1997)。
19.邱景升、周宜強,「MapInfo實務4.X」,松崗電腦圖書公司 (1997)。
20.邱義宏,「透地雷達於管線調查之應用」,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (1998)。
21.林宜清,「敲擊回音法之新近發展與應用」,營建工程非破壞檢測,第229-176頁 (1997)。
22.林啟斌,「地電阻影像法應用於湖底及斷層測勘」,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (1998)。
23.林宏明,「透地雷達應用於地下孔洞調查之研究」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
24.林昆賢,「GPS/GIS應用於南橫公路邊坡地工環境災害調查分析與資料庫系統之建立研究」,國立屏東科技大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
25.林明寬,「透地雷達在地下掩埋物探測之應用」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
26.林宏泰,「透地雷達應用於遺址探測及堤防掏空之研究」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2003)。
27.周志國,「透地雷達法於地下水調查之研究」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1993)。
28.周天穎、葉美玲,「地理資訊系統理論與實務」,逢甲大學地理資訊系統研究中心,第3-2~12-50頁 (2000)。
29.周武坤,「GPS/GIS科技應用於高雄都會區地下管線工程管理資料庫系統之建立與應用」,國立屏東科技大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
30.周天穎,「地理資訊系統理論與實務」,儒林圖書有限公司 (2003)。
31.施保旭,「地理資訊系統」,儒林圖書公司 (1995)。
32.祈明松,「地質雷達在隧道內的探測」,地球科學—中國地質大學報,第18卷,第3期,第352-357頁 (1993)。
33.柯文凱,「透地雷達於剛性鋪面檢測之應用」,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
34.紀昭銘,「應用透地雷達法在土中異物探測之初步研究」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
35.洪翊翔,「透地雷達及地電阻法於淺層構造調查之研究」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1994)。
36.許朝景,「透地雷達於大地環境調查之應用」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
37.許程翔,「透地雷達對地下管線探查之應用研究」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2003)。
38.陳鵬先,「透地雷達應用於淺地層調查之研究」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1993)。
39.陳兆年,「應用透地雷達技術於土木工程結構物之非破壞性檢測」,國立中央大學地質研究所碩士論文 (1996)。
40.陳進陽,「GPS/GIS應用高雄地區坡地地下環境災害分析之調查研究」,國立屏東科技大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (1999)。
41.陳信龍,「步進式高頻地質雷達於道路檢測之模擬與研究」,國立雲林科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
42.陳柏仁,「混凝土內部孔洞顯像之數值研究」,國立臺灣大學應用力學研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
43.陳玩養,「混凝土內部缺陷掃瞄影像之研究」,國立臺灣大學應用力學研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
44.陳維力,「透地雷達影像辨識系統及其在斷層測勘上的應用」,國立中正大學地震研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
45.陳祥穎,「應用後處理程式改善透地雷達訊號特性之探討」,國立雲林科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
46.倪紹仲,「Access資料庫管理與應用」,高立圖書有限公司 (1998)。
47.倪勝火、林宏明、陳敬寬,「透地雷達應用於堤身中空檢測之研究」,檢測科技,第18卷,第3期,第84-92頁 (2000)。
48.倪勝火、陳敬寬、林宏明,「透地雷達法於檢測土木結構物淘空之應用」,土木技術,第34期,第82-95頁 (2000)。
49.倪勝火,「非破壞性提身中空調查技術之研究報告」,經濟部水利處水利規劃試驗所 (2001)。
50.涂書芳,「以遙控探測方法探討公路邊坡穩定的重要因子—以南橫公路甲仙至啞口段為例」,國立成功大學資源工程研究所碩士論文 (2001)。
51.高慧菊,「三維透地雷達探勘於考古學之應用—埔里地區」,國立中正大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (1997)。
52.財團法人中興工程顧問社,「南化水庫與高屏溪攔河堰聯通管路計畫地理資訊查詢及管理系統之建置」,經濟部水利署南部水資源局 (2005)。
53.張家瑞,「建立台灣地區瀝青路面網級養護管理系統—以公路局中壢工務段為例」,國立中央大學土木研究所博士論文 (2001)。
54.張森德,「透地雷達應用在液化及震陷區之模擬試驗研究」,國立雲林科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
55.張君仰,「透地雷達於古蹟探測之應用」,國立成功大學土木研究所 碩士論文 (2004)。
56.黃天福、梁昇,「應用穿地雷達技術偵測地中埋設管線」,中華水土保持學報,第24卷,第2期,第15-21頁 (1993)。
57.黃兆龍,「由超音波評估混凝土品質」,第一屆(1999)公共工程非破壞檢測技術研討會論文集,第48-67頁 (1999)。
58.黃國興,「GPS/GIS與電子地圖之結合應用」,第19屆測量學術及應用研討會論文集,第445-453頁 (2000)。
59.黃天福,「應用透地雷達探測水底淤泥電磁特性之研究」,國立中興大學水土保持研究所博士論文 (2001)。
60.國立屏東技術學院土木工程技術系,建立導水隧道結構體安全性檢測作業制度之先驅性研究 (1996)。
61.逢甲大學地理資訊系統研究中心,「地理資訊系統剖析」,松崗電腦圖書公司 (2000)。
62.梁昇,「穿地雷達回波的原理及其應用於地下水水位之偵測」,農林學報,第39卷,第2期,第201-219頁 (1990)。
63.曾清涼、余致義、何慶雄、劉啟清、楊名,「GPS衛星定位測量實務」,國立成功大學衛星資訊研究中心 (1997)。
64.曾清涼、儲慶美,「GPS衛星測量原理與應用」,國立成功大學衛星資訊研究中心,第二版 (1999)。
65.曾俊智,「步進式地質雷達應用於孔洞偵測之分析與研究」,國立雲林科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文 (2000)。
66.楊潔豪、廖國彰,「透地雷達探測與應用」,地質,第14卷,第2期,第115 -118頁 (1994)。
67.楊潔豪、陳兆年、王仲宇、林銘朗,「透地雷達探測技術與其在土木工程上之非破壞檢測應用」,檢測科技,第15卷,第3期,第109 -119頁 (1997)。
68.楊潔豪,「透地雷達在工程上之應用」,工程科技通訊,第40卷,第65-68頁 (1999)。
69.楊潔豪、董倫道,「透地雷達探測技術」,第一屆(1999)公共工程非破壞檢測技術研討會論文集,第125-165頁 (1999)。
70.楊潔豪、董倫道,「透地雷達探測技術」,第一屆(1999)公共工程非破壞檢測技術研討會論文集,第125-165頁 (1999)。
71.楊潔豪、王仲宇、葛其民,「透地雷達在柔性舖面檢測上之應用」,檢測科技,第18卷,第3-4期,第44-53頁 (2000a)。
72.楊潔豪、王仲宇、陳兆年、王思堯、葛其民,「透地雷達在混凝土結構體檢測上之應用」,土木技術,第34卷,第72-81頁 (2000b)。
73.楊潔豪,「透地雷達法在混凝土結構體檢測上的應用」,土木技術,第3卷,第12期,第72-81頁 (2000)。
74.楊潔豪,「透地雷達法在土木檢測上的應用」,地工技術,第86期,第51-62頁 (2001)。
75.楊明璟,「應用透地雷達於隧道開挖面前方地質探查之初步研究」,國立台灣科技大學營建工程研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
76.董倫道,「地球物理新技術在大地工程之應用」,地工技術,第69期,第55-64頁 (1998)。
77.葛其民,「透地雷達於鋪面之應用」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1999)。
78.鄭守東,「應用透地雷達偵測地下管線現地施工程序及注意事項」,現代營建,第20卷,第1期,第37-40頁 (1999)。
79.鄭富書、蔡道賜,「隧道安全檢測」,第一屆(1999)公共工程非破壞檢測檢測技術研討會論文集,第229-276頁 (1999)。
80.鄧景龍,「透地雷達於土木構件檢測之應用」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1999)。
81.廖國彰,「透地雷達應用於淺地層之個案分析」,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (1993)。
82.劉育松,「透地雷達於裂隙檢測上之應用」,國立中央大學應用地質研究所碩士論文 (1998)。
83.劉大魁,「GPR與熱影像技術於大地工程應用研究」,國立成功大學土木研究所碩士論文 (2002)。
84.蔡光榮、宋益明、王弘祐、林金柄,「GIS/GPS科技應用於新中橫公路賀伯颱風之災害調查分析」,地工技術,第57期,第55-64頁 (1997)。
85.廖國彰,「透地雷達應用於淺地層之個案分析」,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文 (1993)。
86.謝正倫,「台灣地區土石流資料庫之建置與應用」,集水區土砂災害防治與資料庫技術應用推廣研討會論文集,第77-92頁 (2000)。
87.謝正倫,「台灣地區土石流資料庫之建置與應用」,集水區土砂災害防治與資料庫技術應用推廣研討會論文集,第77-92頁 (2000)。
88.羅經書,「透地雷達應用於管線與地層調查之研究」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文 (1998)。
89.Abkowitz, M., Walsh, S., Hauser, E., and Minor, L., “Adoption of geographic information systems to highway management,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 116, No. 3, pp. 310-327 (1990).
90.Abrahamson, S., “Development of a ground penetrating radar system for object detection and classification,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 65-69 (1992).
91.Alvin, K. B., “Applications of ground penetrating radar in assessing some geological hazards: examples of groundwater contamination, faults, cavities,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, No. 1-3, pp. 177-193 (1995).
92.Antenucci, J. C., Geographical Information System, A Guide to the Technology, 3rd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 84-108 (1991).
93.Annan, A. P. and Chua, L. T., “Ground penetrating radar performance predictions,” Geological Survey of Canada, paper 90-4, pp. 5-13 (1992).
94.Attoh-Okine, B. N. O., “Using pentrating radar as an integral part of the formulation of maintenance decisions concerning flexibly pavement,” Proceeding of the fifth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, pp. 293-304 (1994).
95.Bae, S. H., Kim, H. S., and Yoon, W. S., “Case studies on the application of ground penetrating radar technology in detection of underground utilities and structure safety diagnosis,” Proceeding of the Sixth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, pp. 467-472 (1996).
96.Basile, V., Carrozzo, M. T., Negri, S., Nuzzo, L., Quarta, T., and Villani, A. V., “A ground-penetrating radar survey for archaeological investigations in an urban area (Lecce, Italy),” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 44, pp. 15-32 (2000).
97.Benson, A. K., “Case studies using ground penetrating radar to help assess groundwater contamination, shallow faulting, faults, and cavities,” Proceeding of the 29th Symposium on Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, Idaho State University, Rena, NV, pp. 63-89 (1993).
98.Benson, A. K., “Application of ground penetrating radar in assessing some geological hazards: examples of groundwater contamination, faults, cavities,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 33, No. 1-3, pp. 177-194 (1995).
99.Beres, M. J. and Haeni, E. P., “Application of ground-penetrating-radar methods in hydrogeologic studies,” Ground Water, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 375-386 (1991).
100.Beres, M., Luetscher, M., and Olivier, R., “Integration of ground-penetrating radar and microgravimetric methods to map shallow caves,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 46, pp. 249-262 (2001).
101.Bernhardsen, T., Geographical information system, an introduction, 2 nd ed., John and Sons, Inc., pp. 1-168 (1999).
102.Bevan, B. W., “The search for graves,” Geophysics, Vol. 56, pp. 1310-1319 (1991).
103.Cardarelli, E., Marrone, C., and Orlando, L., “Evaluation of tunnel stability using integrated geophysical methods,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 52, pp. 93-102 (2003).
104.Carlsten, S., “Radar techniques for indicating internal erosion in embankment dams,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 143-156 (1995).
105.Chen, H. W., and Kao, H. C., “GPR archaeological investigation in central Taiwan,” Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR 2000), the University of Queensland, Australia (2000).
106.Collins, M. E., “Soil taxonomy: a useful for the application of ground penetrating radar,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 125-132 (1992).
107.Cook, J. C., “Proposed monocycle-pulse VHF radar for airborne ice and snow measurements,” AIEE Transpotation Communication and Electron ,No. 79, pp. 588-594 (1960).
108.Cook, J. C., “Preface,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 1-3 (1995).
109.Cooley, J. W. and Tukey, J. W., “An algorithm for machine calculation of complex fourier series,” Mathematics Computation, Vol. 19, pp. 297-301 (1965).
110.Davis, J. L., and Annan, A. P., “Ground penetrating radar for high resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 37, pp. 531-551 (1989).
111.Daniels, J. J., “Ground penetrating radar for geo-technical applications,” Geophysical Characterization of Sites, Volume Prepared by ISSMFE, TC#10, pp. 1-13 (1994).
112.Daniels, J. J., “Ground penetrating radar for the detection of liquid contaminants,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, No. 1-3, pp. 195-208 (1995).
113.Daniels, K. J., Gunton, D. J., and Scott, H. F., (Guest Editors), “Special issue on subsurface radar,” IEEE Proceedings F-135, pp. 277-392 (1988).
114.Delaney, A. J., and Arcone, S. A., “Sub-bottom profiling: a comparison of short-pulse radar and acoustic data,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 149-157 (1992).
115.Dominic, D. F., “Delineation of shallow stratigraphy using ground-penetrating radar,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, No 1-3, pp. 167-176 (1995).
116.Doolittle, J. A., and Collins, M. E., “Use of soil information to determine application of ground penetrating radar,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 101-108 (1995).
117.Garlsten, S., “Radar techniques for indicating internal erosion in embankment dams,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 143-156 (1995).
118.Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., Training Notes, May (1992).
119.Gorin, S. R., and Hanei, F. R., “Use of subsurface-geophysical methods to access riverbed scour at bridge piers,” US Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigation Report 88-42123, 32p. (1989).
120.Gracia, V. P., Canas, J. A., Pujades, L. G., Clapes, J., Caselles, O., Garcia, F., and Osorio, R., “ GPR survey to confirm the location of ancient structures under the Valencian Cathedral (spain),” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 43, pp. 167-174 (2000).
121.Grandjean, G., Gouvrry, J. C., and Bitri, A., “Evaluation of GPR techniques for civil-engineering applications: study on a test site,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 45, pp. 141-156 (2000).
122.Grandjean, G., and Goury, C., “GPR data processing for 3D facture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece),” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 36, pp. 19-30 (1996).
123.Grodner, M., “Delineation of rockburst fractures with ground penetrating radar in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 885-891 (2001).
124.Hanninen, P., “Application of ground penetrating radar techniques to peatlands investigations,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 217-221 (1992).
125.Hayakawa, H., and kawanaka, A., “Radar imaging of underground pipes by automated estimation of velocity distribution versus depth,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 40, pp. 37-48 (1998).
126.Herman H., “Robotic subsurface mapping using ground penetrating radar,” Ph. D. Dissertation, Department of Robotics Institute, University of Carnegie-Mellon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, (1997).
127.Heteren, S. V., Fitzgerald, D. M., Mckixlay, P. A., and Buynevich, I. V., “Radar facies of paraglacial barrier system coastal New England, USA,” Sedimentology, Vol. 45, pp. 181-200 (1998).
128.Hideki, H., and Akira, K., “Radar imaging of underground pipes by automated estimation of velocity distribution versus depth,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 40, No. 1-3, pp. 37-48 (1998).
129.Hunaidi, O., and Giamou, P., “Ground penetrating radar for detection leaks in buried plastic water distribution,” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference On Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR’98), Lawrence, Kansas, USA, pp. 27-30 (1998).
130.Imai, T., Sakayama, T., and Kanemori T., “Use of ground-probing radar and resistivity surveys for archaeological investigations,” Geophysics, Vol. 52, pp. 137-150 (1987).
131.Interpex Limited, User’s manual for Gradix:ground penetration radar processing and interpretation, Vol. 1, Golden, Colorado, (1997).
132.James, A. D., and Mary, E. C., “Use of soil information to determine application of ground penetrating radar,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 101-108 (1995).
133.Jol, H. M., and Smith, D. G., “Ground penetrating radar of Northern Lacustrine Delta,” Canada Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 28, pp. 1939-1947 (1991).
134.Jol, H. M., “Ground penetrating radar antenna frequencies and transmitter powers compared for penetration depth, resolution and resolution continuity,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 43, pp. 171-178 (1995).
135.Karastathis, V. K., Karmis, P. N., Drakatos, G., and Stavrakakis, G., “Geophysical methods contributing to the testing of concrete dams: application at the Marathon Dam,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 50, pp. 247-260 (2002).
136.Kovas, J. E., “Survey application of ground-penetrating radar,” Surveying and Land Information Systems, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 144-148 (1991).
137.Lau, C. L., “Using ground penetrating radar technology for pavement evaluations in Texas, USA,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 277-283 (1992).
138.Maekawa, S., and Fenner, T. J., “Study of cavity depth estimation behind concrete tunnel lining using G.P.R.,” Proceeding of the Fifth International Conference of G.P.R. Waterloo Center for Ground Research, Waterloo, Ont., pp. 895-905 (1994).
139.MALA Geosience, RAMAC/Ground Vision software manual, Version 3.0, Sweden (2003).
140.MALA Geosience, RAMAC/GPR Operating Manual, Version 3.0, Sweden (1999).
141.Markt, G., “Subsurface characterization of hazardous waste sites using ground pentrating radar,” Proceedings of Second International Symposium on Geotechnical Applications of Ground-Penetrating Radar, Gainesville, Florida, USA, pp. 61-110 (1988).
142.Maser, K. R., “Highway speed radar for pavement and bridge deck evaluation,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 267-276 (1992).
143.Maser, K. R., “Highway speed radar for pavement thickness evaluation,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, pp. 423-432 (1994).
144.McMechan, G. A. Gaynor, G. C., and Szerbiak, R. B., “Use of Ground-penetrating radar for 3-D sedimentological characterization of clastic reservoir analogs,” Geophysics, Vol. 62, pp. 786-796 (1997).
145.Meade, M. L., and Dillon, C. R., Signals and Systems, Chapman and Hall, London (1991).
146.Mellett, J. S., “Location of human remains with ground-penetration radar,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 359-365 (1992).
147.Mellett, J. S., “Ground penetrating radar applications in engineering, environmental management, and geology,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 157-166 (1995).
148.Milan, B. J., and Haeni, F. P., “Application of ground penetrating radar methods in hydrogeologic studies,” Ground Water, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 144-148 (1991).
149.Pagnoni, T., “An automated radar system for non destructive testing of bridge and highway pavements,” Proceeding of the Sixth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, pp. 359-364 (1996).
150.Parry, N. S., and Davis, J. L., “GPR Systems for roads and bridges,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 247-257 (1992).
151.Rizos, C., “Principles and Practice of GPS surveging,” School of Geomatic Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia (1996).
152.Saarenketo, T., and Scullion, T., “Road evaluation with ground penetrating radar,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 43, pp. 119-138 (2000).
153.Sangree, J. B., and Widmier, J. M., “Interpretation of depositional facies from seismic data,” Geophysics, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 131-160 (1979).
154.Scott, W. R., and Smith, G. S., “Measured electrical constitutive parameters of soil as function of frequency and moisture constant,” IEEE Transaction, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 621-623 (1992).
155.Shih, S. F., and Doolittle, J. A., “Using radar to investigate organic thickness in the florida everglades,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 651-656 (1984).
156.Silver, M. L., Fisk, P. S., and Greenman, A., “Grouting a sand dam,” Civil engineering-ASCE, Vol. 56, No. 12, pp. 34-36 (1986).
157.Sternberg, B. K., and McGill, J. W., “Archaeology studies in southern arizona using ground penetrating radar,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 209-225 (1995).
158.Stolte, C., and Niok, K. P., “Eccentricity-migration: a method to improve the imaging of pipes in radar reflection data,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR’94), Kitchener, Ont., Canada, pp. 723-799 (1994).
159.Sutinen, R., “GPR and dielectric classification of glacial materials,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 103-110 (1992).
160.Theimer, B. D., Nobes, D. C., and Warner, B. G., “A study of the geoelectrical properties of peatlands and their influence on ground-penetrating radar surveying,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 42, pp. 179-209 (1994).
161.Tillard, S., and Dubois, J. C., “Analysis of GPR data:wave propagation velocity determination,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 77-91 (1995).
162.Tohge, M., Karube, F., Kobayashi, F., Janakai, A., and Ishii, K., “TheU use of Ground-penetrating radar to map an ancient village buried by vocanic eruptions,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 40, pp. 49-58 (1998).
163.Toshioka, T., Tsuchida, T., and Sasahara, K., “Application of GPR to detection and mapping cracks in rock slopes,” Journal of Applied Geophysics,Vol. 33, pp. 119-124 (1995).
164.Tong, L. T., “Application of ground penetrating radar to locate underground pipes,” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 171-178 (1993).
165.Topp, G. C., Davis, J. L., and Annan, A. P., “Electro-magnetic determination of soil water content: measurement in coexial transmission lines,” Water Resources, Res. 16, pp. 574-586 (1980).
166.Toshioka, T., Tsuchida, T., and Sasahara, K., “Applications of GPR to detecting and mapping cracks in rock slopes,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 33, pp. 119-124 (1995).
167.Ulriksen, C. P., “Application of impulse radar to civil engineering,” Ph.D. Thesis, Dept of Eng. Geol., Lund Univ. of Tech., Sweden, 175p. (1982).
168.Vaughan, C. J., “Ground penetrating radar surveys used in archaeological investigations,” Geophysics, Vol. 51, pp. 595-604 (1986).
169.Weil, G. J., “Non-destructive testing of bridge, highway and airport pavements,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 259-266 (1992).
170.Zeng, X., Mcmechan, G. A., Cai, J., and Chen, H. W., “Comparison of ray and Fourier methods for modeling monostatic ground-penetrating radar profiles,” Geophysics, Vol. 60, pp. 1727-1734 (1995).
171.Zeng, X., and Mcmechan G. A., “ GPR characterization of buried tanks and pipes,” Geophysics, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 797-806 (1997).
172.Zhang, R., “The development of substructure impulse imaging radar and its application,” Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 16, pp. 149-157 (1992).
173.Zolotarey, V. P., Grigorieff, K. N., and Glotov, V. P., “Detection of cavities in dolomite and profiling of alluvial deposits using GPR in Lithuania,” Proceeding of the Sixth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, pp. 445-453 (1996).

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 6 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200911433615
論文名稱(中文) 車輛行經凸起路面之動態荷重
論文名稱(英文) The Dynamic Loads of Pavements When A Vehicle Passing A Bump
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 曹馨文
學號 N6692144
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-07-18
論文頁數 41頁
口試委員 口試委員-蕭志銘
指導教授-郭振銘
口試委員-黃忠信
關鍵字(中) 動態荷重
動態分析
鋪面不平整
互制模型
有限元素
輪胎接觸彈簧
關鍵字(英) finite element
dynamic loads
contact spring
interact
dynamic response
pavement-vehicle interacting model
pavement irregularity
ABAQUS
pavement roughness
dynamic behavior
學科別分類
中文摘要   道路上的補綻會帶來鋪面的不平整,當車輛行經時會對車輛與鋪面造成額外的動態荷重此動態荷重是觀察鋪面應力與預估鋪面壽命的重要因素車輛與鋪面會結合成一互制系統,故於分析動態荷重時不能就單一的車輛或鋪面系統來探討本篇論文以有限元素套裝軟體ABAQUS建立一2-D的互制模型,用以探討於互制模型中車輛或鋪面的各部參數會如何影響動態荷重,一簡化的四分車模型以等速滑行於鋪面模型上,而此鋪面模型包含了鋪面不平整,以此觀察其動態反應在車輛模型中,車體質量與輪胎質量是分開定義的,並且在輪胎與鋪面之間加入輪胎接觸彈簧以模擬輪胎彈性,如此更接近真實情況本篇論文將探討互制模型中各參數對動態荷重的影響並比較在不同條件下的動態反應,以期找出最適合的動態分析模型。
英文摘要  Patching on roads results in pavement irregularity, and this makes an additional dynamic load to both vehicle and pavement systems. Dynamic load is the key factor for stress and life assessment of pavement. Because the vehicle and pavement interact as a coupled system, the dynamic response cannot be solved with either isolated pavement system or vehicle kinematic formation. A 2-D interacting model was constructed with ABAQUS to investigate how the pavement-vehicle parameters affect the dynamic responses. A quarter car model was constructed to simulate a moving load sliding on pavement with surface roughness. Besides the mass of the vehicle carriage, the tire of the quarter car was given an isolated mass as a real car. In order to make the contact interaction more factually, a linear spring was adopted to model the tire elasticity. The pavement-vehicle interacting model was also given different conditions and compared with each other to find out an optimum model.
論文目次 CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................1
 1-1 PROBLEM STATEMENT.........................................................................1
 1-2 REVIEW OF PAVEMENT ANALYSIS.....................................................2
 1-3 Motive .........................................................................................................4
 1-4 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................5
 1-5 SCOPE ........................................................................................................5
CHAPTER TWO .....................................................................................................9
FINITE ELEMAENT MODELS OF INTERACTION ..........................................9
 2-1 CONTACTING AND SLIDING IN ABAQUS ..........................................9
 2-2 CONSTRUCTION OF ABAQUS INTERACTING MODEL ................12
  2-2-1 THE ADOPTION OF ABAQUS ELEMENT ...............................12
  2-2-2 THE VEHICLE AND THE PAVEMENT MODEL IN ABAQUS14
   PAVEMENT SYSTEM .....................................................................14
VEHICLE SYSTEM.........................................................................15
   CONTACT MODE ...........................................................................15
  2-2-3 MODELING THE SURFACE ROUGHNESS .............................16
 2-3 PARAMETERS OF ABAQUS CONTACT SLINDNG ...........................18
   VELOCITY ......................................................................................18
   SLIDING DISTANCE OF VEHICLE ...............................................18
   THICKNESS ....................................................................................19
   THE ANGLE OF BUMP ..................................................................19
   THE HEIGHT OF BUMP .................................................................19
   MESH...............................................................................................20
CHAPTER THREE ...............................................................................................21
THE ANALYSIS OF A QUARTER CAR..............................................................21
 3-1 THE COUPLED MODEL OF A QUARTER CAR AND PAVEMENT..21
 3-2 ANALYSIS WITH DIFFERENT MODELS ...........................................22
  3-2-1 STEPS IN ABAQUS ......................................................................23
  3-2-2 THE OPTION “HAFTOL”IN ABAQUS........................................24
  3-2-3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CONTACT SPRING .........................24
 3-3 THE CONVERGENCE OF THE MODEL.............................................26
 3-4 THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE UNDER DIFFERENT PARAMETERS 28
  3-4-1 THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE UNDER DIFFERENT
VELOCITY.............................................................................................28
  3-4-2 THE EFFECTS OF BUMP ANGLE .............................................30
  3-4-3 THE EFFECTS OF PAVEMENT THICKNESS ..........................32
  3-4-4 THE EFFECS OF BUMP HEIGHT .............................................33
CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................36
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................36
 4-1 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................36
 4-2 RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................................37
REFERENCES.......................................................................................................38
參考文獻 1. ABAQUS/Standard User’s Manual Version 6.3
2. Chatti, Karrim, Lysmer, J., and Monismith, Carl L., “Dynamic Finite-Element Analysis of Jointed Concrete Pavements,”Transportation Research Record , 1449, pp. 79-90, 1994
3. Hardy, M. S. A. and Cebon, D.,”Response of Continuous Pavements to Moving Dynamics Loads,” ASCE J. Engng. Mechanics, 119, pp. 1762-1780, 1993
4. Hardy, M. S. A. and Cebon,D.”Importance of Speed and Frequency in Flexible Pavement Response,”ASCE J. Engng. Mechanics, 120, pp. 463-482, 1994
5. Huang, M.-H. and Thambiratnam, D. P.,“Dynamic Response of Plates on Elastic Foundation to Moving Loads,”Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 128, pp. 1016-1022, 2002
6. Huang, Yang Hsien ,”Pavement Analysis and Design”,Prentice Hall Inc., 1993
7. Liu, Chiu and Herman, Robert,”Roadway-Vehicle Interaction, Physical Indexes, and Human Judgment of Ride Quality,”Transportation Research Record, 1570, pp. 55-59, 1997
8. Liu, Chiu, associate members, ASCE, and Gazis, Denos, ”Surface Roughness Effect on Dynamic Response of Pavements,”
Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 125, pp. 332-337, 1999
9. Liu, Chiu, P.E., McCullough, B. Frank, P.E. and Oey, Hong S., P.E., members, ASCE,”Response of Rigid Pavements Due to Vehicle-Road Interaction,”Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 126, pp. 237-242, 2000
10. Mikhail, Magdy Y. and Mamlouk, Michael S.,“Effect of Vehicle-Pavement Interaction on Pavement Response,”Transportation Research Record, 1570, pp. 78-88, 1997
11. Nasim, Muhammad A., Karamihas, Steven M., Gillespie, Thomas D.,Hansen, Will, and Cebon, David, ”Behavior of Rigid Pavement Under Moving Dynamic Loads,”Transportation Research Record, 1307, pp. 129-135, 1992
12. Papagianninakis, A. T. and Taha, R. , ”Formulation for Viscoelastic Response of Pavements under Moving Dynamic Loads,”Journal of Transportation Engineering, March/April, pp. 140-145, 1996
13. Todd, Kevin B. and Kulalowski, Bohdan T. , “Simple Computer Model for Prediction Ride Quality and Pavement Loading for Heavy Trucks,”Transportation Research Record, 1215, pp. 137-150, 1989
14. Taheri,M. R., and Ting, E. C. ”Dynamic Response of Plates to Moving Loads:Finite Element Method,”comp. & struct., 34, pp. 509-521, 1990
15. Taheri, M. R. and Zaman, M. M., ”Effects of a Moving Aircraft and Temperature Differential on Response of Rigid Pavements,” Computers & Structures, 57, pp. 503-511,1995
16. Wu, Chih-Ping and Shen, Pao-Anne, ”Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Pavements Subjected to Moving Loads,” Journal of transportation Engineering, 122, pp. 367-373, 1995
17. Zaman, Musharraf and Alvappillai, Arumugam, ”Contact-Element Model for Dynamic Analysis of Jointed Concrete Pavements,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, 121, 1995
18. 邱垂德(Qiu),「路面平坦度驗收規範之檢討研究」,交通部台灣區國道新建工程局研究報告122,2000
19. 周鎰鋐,「剛性鋪面受糙度與移動車體質量引發動態荷重影響分析」,國立成功大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,2003
20. 張孟孔(Zhang)、周家蓓,「鋪面糙度與動態荷重互制模式之建立」,國立台灣大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,1995
21. 張其教(Zhang)、張家瑞、宏竟聰與林志棟,「鋪面粗糙度量側記評估指標探討」,中華道路,第三十八卷第四期, pp. 30-40, 1999
22. 張立軍、余卓平,「螺旋彈簧的駐波效應對懸架隔振特性的影響」,上海同濟大學汽車學院。http://www.paper.edu.cn/scholar/download.jsp?file=yuzhuoping-7

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 7 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200912050818
論文名稱(中文) 評估鋪面現況指標之變異性
論文名稱(英文) Evaluation of Variation in Pavement Condition Index
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering (on the job class)
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生(中文) 吳光華
學號 n6792112
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-07-12
論文頁數 115頁
口試委員 口試委員-黃隆昇
口試委員-蔡攀鰲
指導教授-陳建旭
關鍵字(中) 鋪面現況指標
PCI
PCI建議評估準則
關鍵字(英) the PCI suggestion valuation criterion
PCI
學科別分類
中文摘要 在ㄧ般道路的養護或維修工作中,對於鋪面損壞情況進行現地評估工作是佔相當重要的角色,因為道路主管機關對於目前鋪面現地狀況能夠加以正確的評估與掌握,不但可以正確的判斷鋪面目前的破壞情形,預估或是推估鋪面可能的使用期限及破壞的趨勢,進而用以擬定道路鋪面的養護、維修需求機制,訂定適切的養護、修繕計畫。
在本研究中利用鋪面狀況指標(Pavement Condition Index, PCI)來評估道路服務現狀的品質,且利用兩組具有土木工程專業背景,且經過不同時數之鋪面實際訓練的現地檢測人員,並將所量測得到的數值區分為實驗組及對照組,針對不同現地檢測人員對於不同的道路等級,採用統一的檢測方式,針對鋪面破壞的種類、嚴重程度及破壞的數量等進行現場檢測工作,其以省道及市區道路之實驗值間P值分析結果小於0.05,分析其原因應為各檢測人員對於省道及市道鋪面破壞類型的判斷及細微破壞的種類皆不相同,且對於鋪面破壞的嚴重等級評定的等級也不盡相同。另以省道及市區道路間對照組整體的P值做分析其結果小於0.05,分析其結果為省道及市區道路各別的PCI值差異甚大,現況的破壞模式亦不盡相同,顯示各檢測人員對於省道及市區道路兩者間道路損壞情形相關性的認定,其分析的結果為各組數據均不相關。
另以省道實驗值與對照値兩者評判間對道路損壞情況的就個別評分的標準不同及主觀的感受上也不盡相同。若以變異係數進行分析,則對照値在各路段中較高於實驗值,即顯示在經過專業訓練的檢測人員其個人對於鋪面破壞類型的認定及主觀上的感受到鋪面破壞情形上差異較為明顯。
針對檢測路段標準差與變異係數在5以下之資料點,可代表相當明顯可供參考之價值性,即現地檢測數據若標準差落在5以下,則可以定義該批檢測值為好,其檢測路段PCI值的標準差與變異係數在5至10之間的資料點,代表該現地檢測數據可定義為普通,若有餘裕時間其同批檢測人員應前往相同路段再行檢測一次,以降低PCI檢測值之變異係數, 若檢測路段PCI值的標準差與變異係數在10以上的資料點,代表該PCI檢測值無明顯可供參考之價值性,其PCI值可以定義為不好,應予以重新進行檢測,以降低標準差與變異係數之值。





英文摘要 In the road protect or maintain the work, now for spread to face to damage a condition to carry on to evaluate a work is have an equal and important role, because the road supervisor organization can take into for currently spreading condition now right of valuation and control, can spread to face by sound judgment not only current puncture situation, estimate or estimate to spread to face possible usage term and break of trend, draft road to spread to face then and in order to of protect, maintain the need mechanism, establish pertinent protect, repair project.
The exploitation the Pavement Condition Index, PCI in this research to evaluate the quality of the road service present condition, and make use of two sets to have professional back ground of civil engineering, and through dissimilarity hour count it spread to face physically train of examine a personnel now, and is classified into the value that get the measurement to the experiment set and matched control, examine a personnel now to dissimilarity for the different road grade, adopt united of examination method, quantity etc.





論文目次 目 錄

摘要 Ⅰ
誌謝 Ⅳ
目錄 Ⅴ
表目錄 Ⅷ
圖目錄 Ⅹ
第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1前言 1-1
1.2研究動機 1-2
1.3研究目的 1-3
1.4研究範圍 1-4
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2.1鋪面現地評估的分類方式及使用情形 2-1
2.2功能性指標 2-2
2.2.1 現況服務能力評分 2-2
2.2.2 鋪面現況服務能力指標 2-3
2.2.3 國際糙度指標 2-6
2.2.4 梅氏指標 2-7
2.3 結構性指標 2-8
2.3.1 鋪面現況指標 2-8
2.3.2 鋪面表面破壞指標(PSDI) 2-25
2.3.3 鋪面狀況評級 2-26
2.4 其他相關鋪面狀況指標 2-28
2.5 國內柔性路面狀況指標 2-28
第三章 研究計畫 3-1
3.1研究方法 3-1
3.2研究流程 3-7
第四章 結果與討論 4-1
4.1 再生瀝青混凝土基本物性試驗 4-1
4.2 鋪面現場調查破壞的類型 4-2
4.2.1 疲勞裂縫 4-3
4.2.2 修補及修補損壞 4-4
4.2.3 坑洞 4-5
4.2.4車轍 4-6
4.2.5 冒油 4-7
4.2.6 輪跡處及非輪跡處之縱向裂縫 4-8
4.2.7 省道及市區道路鋪面實驗值與對照値之破壞類型比較4-9
4.3 鋪面PCI之實驗值之評估分析 4-15
4.3.1鋪面PCI實驗值之大小分佈狀況 4-15
4.3.2省道鋪面之PCI平均值 4-17
4.3.3市區道路鋪面PCI實驗值之大小分佈狀況 4-18
4.3.4市區道路鋪面PCI實驗值之相關性比較 4-20
4.3.5省道及市區道路PCI之比較 4-21
4.4 鋪面PCI對照値之評估分析 4-24
4.4.1 省道及市區道路前、中、後段PCI對照値之大小分佈狀況
4-24
4.4.2省道及市區道路鋪面PCI對照値之相關性比較 4-27
4.4.3 省道及市區道路間鋪面PCI對照値之相關性比較 4-29
4.5 鋪面PCI實驗值與對照値間之分析結果 4-31
4.5.1各省道及市道間鋪面PCI值之大小分佈狀況 4-31
4.5.2 省道及市道鋪面PCI實驗值與對照値之相關性比較 4-35
4.6整體PCI分析結果 4-39
第五章 結論與建議 5-1
5-1 結論 5-1
5-2 建議 5-4
參考文獻 參-1
附錄
參考文獻 內政部營建署,「市區道路管理維護與技術規範手冊研究」民國91年3月。
周家蓓,臺灣地區一般公路鋪面養護管理系統建立之研究-第二期, 交通部運輸研究所,台北(1993)。
吳威,汪進財,『道路損壞模式與整修策略研究』,土木水利工程學刊,第8卷,頁317(1994)。
周少凡 , 模糊集理論於鋪面表面狀況評估之應用,成功大學土木所碩士論文,台南(2000)。
徐春祥,市區柔性路面維修方式之研究,國立交通大學交通運輸研究所碩士論文,新竹(1993)。
陳克斌,綜合性指標在鋪面工程之應用,私立淡江大學土木工程研究所碩士論文,台北(2002)。
張其教,柔性路面網級養護管理維修系統建立之研究,中央大學土木工程研究所博士論文,桃園(2001)。
張家瑞,建立台灣瀝青路面網級養護管理系統-以公路局中壢工務段為例,中央大學土木工程研究所博士論文,桃園(2001)。
ASTM D6433-03,“Standard Practice of Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys”, 2003.
Carey, W. N. and Irick,P. E. (1960), “The Pavement Serviceability Performance Concept,” Highway Research Bulletin 250.
Chou, C. P., and Wu, C. L., “Evaluation of Panel Characteristics and User-Based Pavement Serviceability,” Transportation Research Record 1592, 1997, pp.98-106 .
Gillespie,T. D. and Sayers,M. W. and Segal,L. ,“ Calibration of
Respones-Type Road Roughness Measuring Systems, ” NCHRP
Report 228,81p (1980).
Hass,R. and Hudson,W. R.,“ Modern Pavement Management, ” Krieger
Publishing Company, 1994.
Northwest Pavement Management Systems Users Group, “ Pavement
Surface Condition Rating Manual ”, Washington State Transportation Center, University of Washington, 1992.
Shahin, M. Y., “ Pavement Management for Airports, Roads, and Parking
Lots ”, Chapman & Hall, New York, London, 1994.
Sayers,M. W., “ On the Calculation of IRI from Longitudinal Road Profile, ”
TRB,1995.
Sayers, M. W. and Gillespie,T. D. and Queiroz, C. A. V., “ The International Road Roughness Experiment, ” Washington D.C.,U.S.A. ,The World Bank ,1986.
Saraf, C.L., “ Pavement Condition Rating System Review of PCR Methodology ”, Report OH-99/004, FHWA, Ohio Department of Transportation, 1998.

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 8 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200914024936
論文名稱(中文) 梯形模糊輸出迴歸模式之建立
論文名稱(英文) Development of a linear regression model for trapezoidal fuzzy output data
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生(中文) 呂佳原
學號 n6691159
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-07-31
論文頁數 76頁
口試委員 口試委員-吳致平
召集委員-鄭明淵
口試委員-李宇欣
指導教授-潘南飛
關鍵字(中) 最小平方法
梯型模糊數
模糊迴歸分析
線性規劃法
關鍵字(英) least-squares approach
trapezoidal fuzzy number
fuzzy regression model
linear- programming method
學科別分類
中文摘要 傳統迴歸分析只適用於處理調查資料或變數為明確的數值,模糊迴歸分析則可處理主觀與非明確的資料。現存可處理因變數為梯形模糊數的模糊迴歸模式甚少,且存在計算困難之問題,以及尚無可衡量模式配適度方法。因此,本研究提出一可處理非對稱梯形模糊輸出資料的迴歸分析法,迴歸式的建立係以線性規劃法求解模糊度最小而得。此外,本研究亦提出一分析方法來衡量其模式配適的品質。最後,本研究以橋樑伸縮縫狀況為案例,來探討模式的實用性與預測伸縮縫狀況。
英文摘要 Ordinary regression techniques only suit to deal with crisp inspected data. Fuzzy regression model can solve subjective and non-crisp data. There are fewer linear regression model talking about trapezoidal fuzzy data, and their shortage are hardly calculated. There does not exist a model to test goodness of fit of the result of regression model. Therefore, this study presents a model to solve asymmetry trapezoidal fuzzy output data with minimizing vagueness by linear- programming method. Besides , this study built up a method to test the goodness of fit of the result of estimation. At last, this study show an application of linear regression analysis with trapezoidal fuzzy data, called prediction of condition of bridge deck expansion joint.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究範圍與限制 3
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻與理論背景回顧 4
2.1 文獻回顧 4
2.2 理論背景 8
2.2.1 傳統線性迴歸分析 8
2.2.2 明確集合與模糊集合 8
2.2.3 擴展定理 9
2.2.4 α截集 9
2.2.5 模糊數 9
2.2.6 Ishibuchi與Tanaka的模糊迴歸分析法 12
2.2.7 D’Urso的模糊迴歸分析法 15
2.3 台灣現行的DERU橋樑檢測法 17
2.3.1 橋樑劣化分析之文獻回顧 19
第三章 梯形模糊線性迴歸模式之建立 21
3.1 基本原理 21
3.2 模式之建立 25
3.3 範例分析 29
3.4 小結 34
第四章 迴歸模式品質之衡量 35
4.1 適合度分析 35
4.2 範例分析 41
4.3 小結 42
第五章 案例探討 43
5.1 背景描述 43
5.2 分析結果與討論 48
第六章 結論與建議 59
6.1 結論 59
6.2 建議 59
參 考 文 獻 61
附錄一 66
附錄二 70
自述 76
參考文獻 參 考 文 獻
一、中文部份(按筆劃多寡排列)
[1] 中央大學橋樑工程研究中心,1997,混凝土橋樑檢查手冊,台灣省交通處公路局,桃園。
[2] 王安培與林正道,2001,“土石流危險度之模糊迴歸分析和綜合評判”,第十二屆水利工程研討會,台南。
[3] 李有豐與林安彥,2000,橋樑檢測評估與補強,全華科技圖書,台北。
[4] 李允中、王小璠與蘇木春,2003,模糊理論及其應用,全華科技圖書,台北。
[5] 林志棟、曾國雄、張家瑞與洪境聰,2001,“以模糊迴歸方法建立柔性路面現況服務能力指標”,第十一屆鋪面工程學術研討會,高雄。
[6] 林登淵,2004,「公路橋樑伸縮縫損壞調查與相關影響因素之研究」,朝陽科技大學營建工程研究所,碩士論文。
[7] 林永基,2006,「高速公路伸縮縫噪音及跳動研究」,逢甲大學土木工程學系,碩士論文。
[8] 周聰佑與梁金樹,2002,“模糊迴歸模式及其在航空旅客運量預測應用之研究”,技術學刊,第十七卷,第一期。
[9] 陳維東、潘南飛、劉述舜、盧順逸,(2005),「應用迴歸分析預測道路工程之最低標價」,技術學刊第20卷第4期,第387至397頁。
[10] 許文政、黃榮堯,(2004),「橋樑生命週期成本評估-構件劣化預測模式之研究」,第八屆營建工程與管理研究成果聯合發表會,台北。
[11] 曹銳勤,1999,模糊迴歸模式之建構與分析,國立交通大學,工管系,博士論文。
[12] 黃冠智,2006,模糊迴歸模式之建立及其應用,國立高雄應用科技大學,土木系,碩士論文。
[13] 黃盈樺,2005,”運用K最近鄰居分類法預測混凝土橋面板之劣化”,2005電子計算機於土木水利工程應用研討會,台南。
[14] 黃乾全、蕭景祥、董貞吟與劉玉文,(2000),「營造業勞工墜落事故相關因素之研究」,勞工安全衛生研究季刊,第八卷,第四期。
[15] 黃榮堯與許鎧麟,2003,橋樑生命週期成本評估方法與結構使用年限之建立(2/2),財團法人台灣營建研究院計畫報告。
[16] 潘南飛,李思賢,(2004),「傳統迴歸與模糊迴歸在營建工程預測應用之比較」,營建管理季刊,第59期,第54-58頁。
[17] 潘南飛與黃冠智,2005,“橋梁劣化之迴歸分析”,2005電子計算機於土木工程應用之研討會,台南。
[18] 潘南飛,(2006),「模糊迴歸在工程應用之探討」,技術學刊,第21卷第2 期,第1至11頁。
[19] 潘南飛,(2006),「土木與建築構造物發生倒塌之肇因分析」,營建管理季刊第66期,第7至13頁。
[20] 蘇暉傑,(2003),「既有橋梁損壞相關影響因素之研究-以台中縣為例」,逢甲大學,交管系,碩士論文。
[21] 鐘金龍與曾惠斌,2002,”橋樑延壽對策模式之架構建立”,第六屆營建工程與管理研究成果聯合發表會,高雄。
二、英文部份(按字母順序排列)
[22] Chen, S.J. and Hwang, C.L., 1992, Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Springer-Verlag, New York.
[23] Chang, P.T. and Lee, E.S., 1996, “A generalized fuzzy weighted least-squares regression”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 82, pp.289-298.
[24] Chang, Y.H. and Ayyub, B. M., 2001, “Fuzzy regression model─a comparative assessment”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 119, pp. 187-203.
[25] Chang, L.M. and Lee, Y.J., 2002, “Evaluation of performance of bridge deck expansion joints”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol.16, No.1, pp.3-9.
[26] Chang, Y.H., 2001, “Hybrid fuzzy least-squares regression analysis and its reliability measures”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 119, pp. 225-246.
[27] Diamond, P., 1988, “Fuzzy least squares”, Information Sciences, Vol. 46, pp.141-157.
[28] Diamond, P. and Korner, R., 1997, “Extended fuzzy linear models and least-squares estimates ”, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 33, pp.15-32.
[29] D’Urso, P. and Gastaldi, T., 2000. “A least-squares approach to fuzzy linear regression analysis”, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, Vol. 34, pp. 427-440.
[30] D’Urso, P. and Gastaldi, T., 2002, “An “orderwise ” polynomial regression procedure for fuzzy data”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 130, pp. 1-19.
[31] D’Urso, P., 2003, “Linear regression analysis for fuzzy/crisp input and fuzzy/crisp output data”, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, Vol. 42, pp. 47-72.
[32] Liang, M.T., Chu, T.B., Tsao, W.H. and Yeh, C.J., 2006, “Determining the repair ranking of existing RC bridges using fuzzy synthetic evaluation method” Journal of Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.37~50.
[33] Faraway, J.J., 2005, Linear Models with R, Compman and Hall/CRC Company, New York.
[34] Huang, Y.U., 2003, Modeling deterioration of concrete bridge decks using neural network, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
[35] Huang, Y.U., 2004, “Analysis of life-cycle maintenance strategies for concrete bridge decks”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, Vol.9, No.3, pp.250-258.
[36] Ishibuchi, H. and Tanaka, H., 1990, “Identification of fuzzy parameters by interval regression models”, Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 3, Vol.73, No. 12, pp. 19-27.
[37] Jiang, Y., Saito, M. and Sinha, K.C., 1988, “Bridge performance prediction model using the markov chain”, Transportation Research Record, 1180, PP. 25-35.
[38] Kim, B. and Bishu, R.R., 1998, “Evaluation of fuzzy linear regression models by comparing membership functions”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 100, pp. 343-352.
[39] Kao, C. and Chyu, C.L., 2002, “A fuzzy linear regression model with better explanatory power”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.126, pp.401-409.
[40] McFadden, Daniel; Mas-Colell, Andreu; Mantel, Rolf; Richter, Marcel K,1974,” A Characterization of Community Excess Demand Functions” , Journal of Economic Theory, Dec74, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p361-374, 14p, 4 graphs.
[41] Mauch, S.M. and Madanat, S., 2001, “Semiparametric hazard models of reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration”, Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Vol. 7, No.2, pp.49-57.
[42] Morcous, G., Lounis, Z. and Mirza, M.S., 2003, “Identification of environmental Categories for markovian deterioration models of bridge decks”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, Vol.8, No.6, pp.353-361.
[43] Ma, M., Friedman, M. and Kandel, A., 1997, “General fuzzy least squares”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol.88, pp.107-118.
[44] Neter, J., Kutner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C.J. and Wasserman, W., 1999, Applied Linear Regression Models, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[45] Pan, N.F., 2006, “Forecasting bridge deck conditions using fuzzy regression analysis”, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers (Revising).
[46] Redden, D. and Woodall, W., 1994, “Properties of certain fuzzy regression methods”, Fuzzy Sets and systems, Vol. 64, pp.361-375.
[47] Savic, D.A. and Pedrycz, W., 1991, “Evaluation of fuzzy linear regression models”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 39, pp. 51-63.
[48] Sakawa, M. and Yano, H., 1992, “Multiobjective fuzzy linear regression analysis for fuzzy input-output data”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 47, pp. 173-181.
[49] Sakawa, M. and Yano, H., 1992, “Fuzzy linear regression analysis for fuzzy input-output data”, Information Sciences, Vol. 63, pp. 191-206.
[50] Tanaka, H., Uejima, S. and Asai, K., 1982, “Linear regression analysis with fuzzy model”, IEEE Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.12, No.6, pp. 903-907.
[51] Tanaka, H. and Watada, J., 1988, “Possibilistic linear systems and their application to the linear regression model”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 27, pp. 275-289.
[52] Wang, H.F., and Tasur, R.C., 2000, “Resolution of fuzzy regression model”, European journal of operational research, Vol. 126, pp. 637-650.
[53] Wu, H.C., 2003, “Linear regression analysis for fuzzy input and output data using the extension principle”, Computers & Mathematics with Application, Vol. 45, pp. 1849-1859.
[54] Yang, M.S. and Lin, T.S., 2002. “Fuzzy least-squares linear regression analysis for fuzzy input-output data”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 126, pp. 389-399.
[55] Zimmermann, H. J.,1991, Fuzzy Set Theory and its Applications-2nd ed, Kluwer Academic, Boston.
[56] Zadeh, L.A., 1965, “Fuzzy sets”, Information and Control, Vol. 8, pp.338-353.
[57] Zadeh, L.A., 1978, “Fuzzy sets as a basis for theory of possibility”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 3-28.

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 9 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200914352010
論文名稱(中文) 以模糊迴歸分析評估柔性鋪面現況服務指標
論文名稱(英文) Estimating the Present Serviceability Index of Flexible Pavement using Fuzzy Regression Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 許楷均
學號 n6695150
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-07-29
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 口試委員-曾仁杰
口試委員-蕭志銘
指導教授-潘南飛
口試委員-陳建旭
關鍵字(中) 模糊迴歸分析
現況服務能力評分
柔性鋪面
現況服務能力指標
關鍵字(英) Flexible pavement
Present Serviceability Rating
Present Serviceability Index
Fuzzy Regression Analysis
學科別分類
中文摘要 道路鋪面的基本功能為提供使用者一個安全舒適的道路品質,因此道路使用者的觀感為維持道路服務性之重要評估因子,其通常以路面平坦程度決定道路鋪面之舒適度;此外,鋪面會因交通量、雨量及氣溫等因素產生多種不同的破壞型式,然國內目前對於鋪面狀況的評量與維護工作,仍存有缺乏長期路面資料、資料紀錄不良及未有準確評估模式等諸多問題,故鋪面服務性之維護與預測作業尚未臻完善;綜上所述,探討鋪面破壞型式與道路使用者觀感間的關係及維持良好的服務性指標,甚而預測未來鋪面服務性為相當值得深究的議題。
以往較常用來評估及預測鋪面的模式為統計迴歸方法,如美國工程師Carey及Irick於1960年利用迴歸模式,建立主觀資料PSR與儀器量測資料間的關係之PSI迴歸式濫觴(Chang et al, 2003 ) ;國內吳政隆與江煌基於1995年分別以台北地區及高速公路為案例建構現況服務能力指標PSI迴歸式。惟PSR指標值及其他破壞等級之判定存在著模糊語意性質,且傳統迴歸並不能處理帶有人為不確定或語意性的檢測結果;故使用模糊迴歸方法可將具有模糊或語意性質的資料提供有效的量化處理,進而發展PSI迴歸式。
本研究旨在探討鋪面服務能力指標與破壞型式的關係,並應用Pan and Hwang於2008年提出適用於本研究特性之可處裡模糊因變數及混合型自變數的模糊迴歸式。此外,實測個案為國立成功大學週邊道路(前鋒路、勝利路)進行市區道路檢測、道路現況服務力評分PSR(Present Serviceability Rating, PSR)、目視破壞項目檢測、車轍試驗及平坦度等試驗進行數據蒐集與分析。
本研究應用模糊迴歸模式建立評估鋪面服務性指標之PSI迴歸式,且依據現場試驗與模式分析結果發現,平坦度項目影響鋪面服務能力指標最鉅,其次則為人孔數分佈的多寡;再者,透過模糊判定係數R2檢驗發現,本研究所建置之模糊迴歸模式對於PSR與各破壞型式間的關係有70%左右的解釋能力,故可提供鋪面管理者有效的評量鋪面服務性及制定鋪面維修和養護策略之依據。
英文摘要 The main objective of pavement construction is to provide the safe and comfortable quality of the road for users. The roughness of pavement is an important effect to the users’ feeling of the road. However, the pavement condition deteriorates because of traffic, rainfalls, temperature, etc. The estimation and maintanence of pavement condition domestically has some problems, for example lack of long-term pavement data, incompleted records, unprecise models etc. In conclusion, considering the relationship between deteriorated pavement condition and the users’ feeling of road, maintaining good pavement serviceability and predicting pavement condition are worthy subjects to research.
In the past, conventional regression model often had been used in estimating pavement condition. For example, Carey and Irick in 1960 established PSI(Present Serviceability Index) regression model to deal with the relation between PSR (Present Serviceability Rating) and objective measurement(Chang et al, 2003). But PSR and other deteriorated pavement condition is evaluated by the subjective judgment. The conventional regression model cannot deal with uncertainty and fuzziness data ,so fuzzy regression model is used to establish the PSI regression model and handle this kind of problems.
This study aims at disscussing the relationship between PSR and the deteriorated pavement and applying Pan and Hwang’s fuzzy regression model in 2008 to develop fuzzy PSI(Present Serviceability Index) regression model. This model can deal with the fuzzy dependent parameters and fuzzy/crisp independent parameters.
Based on the result of this study, roughness affect pavement serviceability mostly and manholes affect secondly. Therefore, this fuzzy regression model in this study has 70% explained the ability in relationship between PSR and the deteriorated pavement condition through R-square. It can help pavement managers to estimate pavement serviceability effectively and order suitable pavement maintenance strategies.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究範圍與流程 2
1.3 論文架構 3
1.4 研究流程 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 鋪面評估之基本分類 5
2.2 決定論模式 5
2.3 機率論模式 7
2.4 其他 9
2.5 小結 21
第三章 鋪面回顧 23
3.1 鋪面管理系統之介紹 23
3.1.1 鋪面管理系統之介紹 23
3.1.2 鋪面管理系統的內容 23
3.2 鋪面評估指標之介紹 25
3.2.1 鋪面結構性指標 25
3.2.2 鋪面功能性指標 32
3.3 測量平坦度的儀器 37
3.3.1 斷面式平坦度檢測儀 37
3.3.2 反應式平坦度檢測系統 40
3.3.3 慣性式平坦儀 41
3.4 各種破壞型式的介紹 43
3.4.1 鋪面之損壞型態 43
3.5 研究範圍和案例資料 45
3.5.1 PSR的量測 45
3.5.2 平坦度的量測 48
3.5.3 車轍的量測 48
3.5.4 目視道路破壞型式 49
3.6 小結 55
第四章 模糊迴歸模式 57
4.1 模糊理論 57
4.1.1 一般集合與模糊集合 57
4.1.2 -cut截集合 58
4.1.3 模糊數及隸屬函數 59
4.1.4 模糊擴展定理 64
4.2 模糊迴歸模式 65
4.2.1 模糊近似最小平方迴歸 65
4.2.2 模糊擴展最小平方迴歸 69
4.2.3 模糊判定係數 80
4.3 小結 81
第五章 模糊迴歸於鋪面服務能力的探討 82
5.1 問題描述 82
5.2 資料整理 83
5.3 傳統迴歸 96
5.4 模糊迴歸 100
5.5 小結 107
第六章 結論與建議 108
6.1 結論 108
6.2 建議 109
參考文獻 111
附錄一 116
自述 130
參考文獻 參考文獻
一、外文部分(A~Z)
1. ASTM D6433-99, “Standard Practice of Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys”, 1999.
2. Ahmed, K., Abu-Lebdeh G. and Lyles, D.W., “Prediction of pavement distress index with limited data on causal factors:An auto-regression approach”, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 2007.
3. Butt, Abbas A., Mohamed Y. Kieran J. Feighan, and Samuel Carpenter, H., “Pavement Performance Prediction Model using the Markov process.”, Transportation Research Record 1123, Transportation Research Board, 1985.
4. Cook, W.D and A. Kazakov. Pavement Performance Prediction and Risk Modeling in Rehabilitation Budget Planning: A Markovian Approach. Proceedings, Second North American Conference on Managing Pavements, Vol. 2, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pp2.63~2.75, 1987.
5. Canadian Good Roads Association, “Pavement Evaluation Studies in Canada,” Proc. First International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement ,University of Michigan, 1967.
6. Canadian Good Roads Association, “Field Performance Studies of Flexible Pavement in Canada,” Proc. First International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement ,University of Michigan, 1971.
7. Chang, Jia-Ruey, Tzeng, Gwo-Hsiung, Hung, Ching-Tsung, and Lin, Hsin-Hwa,
”Non additive Fuzzy Regression Applied to Establish Flexible Pavement Present Serviceability Index”, The IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 2003.
8. Chu, Chih-Yuan., Pablo, L., and Durango-Cohen., “Estimation of infrastructure performance models using state-space specifications of time series models”, Transportation Research Part C, pp17~32, 2007.
9. Chen, S.J. and Hwang, C.L., “Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Springer-Verlag”, New York. , 1992.
10. Dubois, D. and Prade, H., “Ranking fuzzy number in the setting of possibility theory”, Information Science, pp183~224, 1983.
11. Federal Highway Administration, “DISTRESS IDENTIFICATION MANUAL for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program”, 2003.

12. Finn, F., “Pavement Management Systems ?Past, Present, and Future”, National Workshop on Pavement Management in New Orleans, July 20, 1997.
13. Fwa, T.F. and Gan, K.T., “Bus-Ride Panel Rating of Pavement Serviceability”, ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 115, No.2, 1989.
14. Federal Highway Administration. “1999 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges, and Transit:Conditions and Performance Report.” Federal Highway Administration. Report FHWA-PL-08-017, Washington D.C. 2001.
15. Finn, F., ”Pavement Management System?Past, Present, and Future.”, Public Roads, Vol 62, July/August, 1998.
16. Faraway, J.J., “Linear Models with R”, Compman and Hall/CRC Company, New York, 2005.
17. Gunaratne, M., Chameau, J.L., and Altschaeffl, A.G., “Introduction to Fuzzy Sets in Pavement Evaluation”, Transportation Research Record 985, pp22~24.
18. Gendreau, Michel and Soriano, Patrick, “Airport Pavement Management System:An Appraisal of Existing Methodologies”. Transpn Res.-A, Vol.32, No.3, pp.197~214,1998.
19. Haas, R. and Hudson, W.R., “Pavement Management Systems, ” Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1986.
20. Janoff, M.S., “Methodlogy for Computing Pavement Ride Quality From Pavement Roughness Measurements”, Transportation Research Record 1084, 1986.
21. Klir, G. J. and Folger, T.A. “Fuzzy sets, uncertainty and information”, NJ:Prentice-Hall, 1988.
22. Lou, Z., Gunaratne, M., Lu, J.J., and Dietrich, B., Members, “Application of Neural Network Model to Forecast Short-term Pavement Crack Condition:Florida Case Study”,Journal of infrastructure systems, December 2001.
23. Luo, Zairen, and Eddie Chou, Y., “Pavement Condition Prediction Using Clusterwise Regression”, TRB 2006 Annual CD-ROM, 2006.
24. Moore, R.J., Clark, G.N. and Plumb, G.N., “Present Serviceability-Roughness Correlation Using Rating Panel Data”, Transportation Research Record 1117, 1987.
25. Neter, J., Kuntner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C.J. and Wasserman, W. “Applied Linear Regression Models”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999.
26. Nick, J.B. and Janoff, M.S., “Evaluation of Panel Rating Methods for Assessing Pavement Ride Quality”, Transportation Research Record 946, 1983.
27. Pan, N.F. and Hwang, K.C., " A linear regression analysis with fuzzy-inputs and fuzzy-output model", Fuzzy sets and Systems (Accepted) , 2008.
28. Pan, N.-F., Yang, M.-D., Hsu, K-C, "Estimates of bridge girder conditions based on fuzzy inspection data", Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD'08), IEEE, 2008, Jinan , China (EI indexed).
29. Shekharan Raja, A., “Effect of Noisy Data on Pavement Performance Prediction by Artificial Neural Networks”, Transportation Research Record 1643,pp7~13, 1998.
30. Shekharan Raja, A., “Assessment of Relative Contribution of Variables to Pavement Performance Prediction by Artificial Neural Networks”, Transportation Research Record 1655,pp35~41, 1999.
31. Shoukry Samir, N., Martinelli David, R., and Reigle Jennifer, A., “Universal Pavement Distress Evaluator Based on Fuzzy Set”, Transportation Research Record 1592, pp180~186, 1997.
32. Samuel, Owusu-Ababio., “Modeling Skid Resistance for Flexible Pavements:A Comparison Between Regression and Neural Network Models.” Transportation Research Record 1501, p60~71, 1996.
33. Smith, R.E., “Structuring a Microcomputer Based Pavement Management System for Local Agencies, ” Ph.D. dissertation , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL,1986.
34. Shahin, M. Y., “Airfield pavement distress measurements and use in pavement management”, Transportation Research Record 893, pp.59-63, 1982.
35. Shahin, M.Y., Darter, M.I. and Kohn, S. D., “Evaluation of airfield pavement condition and determination of rehabilitation needs.” , Transportation Research Record 700, pp.1-10, 1997.
36. Shahin, M. Y. and Becker, J. M., “Development of performance prediction models for airfield pavements. ” , Transportation Research Record 985, 1984.
37. Shahin, M. Y., “Pavement Management for Airports, Roads, and Parking Lots” , Chapman & Hall, New York, London, 1994.
38. Saraf, C.L., “Pavement Condition Rating System Review of PCR Methodology”, Report OH-99/004, FHWA, Ohio Department of Transportation, 1998.
39. The American Society for Civil Engineers, Report card for America ’s infrastructure, 2007, available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/page.cfm?id=22, accessed 12/14/2007 .
40. Tanaka, H.,Uejima, S. and Asai, K., “Fuzzy linear regression analysis for fuzzy input-output data”,IEEE Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.12, No.6, pp 903-907, 1982.
41. Ullidtz, P. and Larsen, B. K., “Mathematical model for predicting pavement performance.” Transportation Research Record 949, p45~55, 1983.
42. Wong, Wing-gun, and He, Guiping, “Gray Evaluation Method of Concrete Pavement Comprehensive Condition”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, November/December 1999.
43. Wang, Kelvin and Liu, Fengxian, “Fuzzy Set-based and Performance-Oriented Pavement Network Optimization System.” Journal of infrastructure systems, December/1997.
44. WSDOT Pavement Management and Condition Rating Systems, available at http://training.ce.washington.edu/WSDOT/Modules/09_pavement_evaluation/09-6_body.htm.
45. Yu, Jianiong, Eddie Chou, Y.J., and Luo, Zairen, “Development of Linear Mixed Effects Models for Predicting Individual Pavement Conditions”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, June 2007.
46. Yang, M.S. and Ko, C.H., “On a class of fuzzy c-numbers clustering procedures for fuzzy data”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 84, pp49-60, 1996.


二、中文部分
47. 周家蓓,「台灣地區一般公路鋪面養護管理系統建立之研究-第二期」,交通部運輸研究所,1993。
48. 吳政隆,「柔性鋪面現況服務力指標之研究」,碩士論文,國立台灣大學,1995。
49. 江煌基,「高速公路鋪面服務能力指標建構之研究」,碩士論文,淡江大學,1995。
50. 周少凡,「模糊集理論於鋪面表面狀況評估之應用」,碩士論文,國立成功大學土木工程所,1997。
51. 葉怡成,「應用類神經網路」,儒林圖書公司,1997.
52. 蘇木春、張孝德,「機械學習:類神經網路、模糊系統以及基因演算法則」,全華科技圖書股份有限公司,1999.
53. 曹銳勤,「模糊迴歸模式之建構與分析」,博士論文,國立交通大學,公管所, 1999。
54. 邱垂德,「路面平坦度驗收規範之檢討研究」,交通部國道新建工程局,2000。
55. 洪境聰,「柔性鋪面現況服務力指標與預測模式建立之研究」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程所,2000。
56. 鄭昇旭,「柔性鋪面評分之探討--以高雄市中鋼路為例」,碩士論文,國立屏東科技大學土木工程所,2001。
57. 林勝傑,「類神經網路與馬可夫鏈理論於鋪面狀況評估之應用」,碩士論文,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,2001。
58. 交通部台灣區國道高速公路局,「中山高速公路路面檢視研究及現況評估」,期末報告,2001。
59. 林志棟,姚志廷,「國際糙度指標與鋪面破損之相關性分析」,土木水利第28卷第三期,2001。
60. 張家瑞,「建立台灣地區瀝青路面網級養護管理系統-以公路局中壢工務段為例」,博士論文,國立中央大學土木工程所,2001。
61. 林志棟,曾國雄,張家瑞,洪境聰,「以模糊迴歸方法建立柔性路面現況服務能指標」,第十一屆鋪面工程學術研討會,2001。
62. 「市區道路管理維護與技術規範手冊研究」,營建署,2002。
63. 鄭有良,「類神經網路於鋪面評估之應用」,碩士論文,國立成功大學土木工程所,2003。
64. 交通部,「公路養護手冊」,交通技術標準規範公路類公路工程部,2003
65. 宋宗勳,「柔性鋪面狀況指標檢測之研究」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程所,2004。
66. 林元生,「智慧型鋪面檢測車應用於鋪面平坦度之研究」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程所,2004。
67. 溫建龍,「維生管線孔蓋對道路平坦度影響之研究」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木所, 2005。
68. 吳宜叡,「智慧型鋪面檢測車認證及鋪面平坦度之研究」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程所,2005。

------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 10 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200915323758
論文名稱(中文) 建築物維修整建與合理生命週期之研究-以台南市國民小學為例
論文名稱(英文) A Study on Building Maintenance and Reasonable Life Cycle – the Case of Primary Schools of Tainan City
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 石昭永
學號 n7891108
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-07-13
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 口試委員-曾俊達
口試委員-魏浩揚
口試委員-張珩
口試委員-黃世孟
指導教授-林憲德
關鍵字(中) 國民小學
維修整建
生命週期
關鍵字(英) building maintenance
building life cycle
primary school
學科別分類
中文摘要 適當的維修整建可以延長建築物的生命週期,減少新設建築物的建設費用,也是學校經營管理中需要持續處理,卻難以預估的重要費用。台灣的人口出生數,自1997年起逐年下降,逐年下降的學生人數影響了校園工程內容,過去以新增建工程為主的國民小學,也逐漸轉變為以修整建工程為主,台南市自2002年起,新增建工程已經超越修整建工程,成為校園的主要工程。因此,準確的預估維修整建費用與屋齡的關係,並求得建築物的合理的生命週期,可以使學校經營管理與校園規劃更符合經濟環保的教育目標。
由過去10年間台南市國民小學新增建與維修整建的工程合約,可以分析新增建以及維修整建工程的細項內容,以及各細項工程的生命週期長短順序,並求出校舍中建築部分的生命週期是設備部分生命週期的2.36倍。建築設計必須使生命週期不同的構造可以獨立更換,以減少連帶工程與維修整建工程費用。依據學校平均屋齡與新增建及維修整建費用之間的關係,可以推導出預測新增建及維修整建工程費用的公式,學校可以據此公式預估年度維修整建費用,作為編列或申請建設經費的依據。維修整建費用隨著平均屋齡升高而升高,因此保存一棟年代久遠的老校舍並不一定比拆除重建經濟,由建築物生命週期中的平均新增建費用與平均維修整建費用,可以求得國小校舍在屋齡為55年時有最低的平均整體費用,而在屋齡為43-72年時為合理的生命週期,有較低的平均整體費用與較大的拆除時間彈性。
台南市的國民小學學生總人數正逐年下降中,但學校依學生人數變化的趨勢,可分為新開發重劃區人數急速上升、老市區人數急速減少,以及市郊區人數變化穩定的三類型學校,統計此三類型學校的平均屋齡、新增建與維修整建工程的比例、與每人每年平均建設費用,顯示都市穩定的發展與更新,保持穩定的人口結構與小學學生數量,可以降低校舍的整體工程經費,並促成經濟永續的國民小學發展。
英文摘要 Adequate maintenance can prolong school buildings’ life cycle, enhance quality of learning, and reduce unexpected repair expense, but it is also an ever-going unpredictable expenditure for schools. Since 1957 the birth rate of Taiwan started to decline rapidly, and from 1997, student number attending primary schools started to go down, therefore less new buildings are needed. After 2002, the maintenance expense gradually exceeds new construction expense, and becomes major construction in primary schools of Tainan City, Taiwan.
With record of 10-year contract documents of new construction and maintenance, the life cycle hierarchical order of various constructions can be demonstrated, and the life cycle of main building body is 2.36 times of the span of equipment. Maintenance expense goes up while building age goes up, therefore to maintain an old building after a certain building age may not be an economic decision compared with starting a new building. By combining new construction and maintenance expense of a building throughout its life cycle, the most economic life span is 55 years, and the reasonable life span is 43-72 years, which is within 2% of the lowest life cycle expense, and more flexible in reconstruction timing.
According to the fluctuation rate of enrolled student number, three types of schools are classified. Type I schools are located mostly in the old town, student numbers decrease more than 10% in 10 years. Type II schools are in the suburban, student numbers stay balanced. Type III schools are in the newly developed area, student number increase more than 10% in 10 years. Average building age, maintenance and new construction expense proportion, and construction fee per student are compared among these three types of schools, and induce that keeping student number stable can reduce total construction expense of primary schools, and is a more sustainable way of urban and school development.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
1-1 建築是需要維護的生活機器 1
1-2 建築物的品質與維修整建 2
1-3 研究動機 3
1-4 研究範圍 7
1-5 研究流程 8

第二章 相關研究與試調查
2-1 國外相關研究 12
2-2 國內相關研究 15
2-3 試調查-台南市日新國小校園發展與工程經費 16
2-4 物價指數調整 21

第三章 維修整建工程比例與構造生命週期
3-1 建築部分新增建與維修整建工程的比例 22
3-2 設備部分新增建與維修整建工程的比例 24
3-3 台南市國小校舍新增建與維修整建工程的比例 27
3-4 設備工程的比例與設備生命週期 28
3-5 連帶工程與方便維修的設計 30

第四章 維修整建費用推估與合理生命週期
4-1 平均屋齡 32
4-2 校齡與平均屋齡 33
4-3 新建費用與平均屋齡 35
4-4 維修整建費用與平均屋齡 36
4-5 整體建設費用與平均屋齡 38
4-6 國小校舍最佳與合理的生命週期 39

第五章 都市發展與小學建設經費
5-1 台南市老市區與新市區的學校發展 42
5-2
5-2-1類型一 學生人數急速減少的學校 44
5-2-2類型二 學生人數穩定的學校 46
5-2-3類型三 學生人數急速增加的學校 47
5-3 三種類型的學校建設費用比較 48
5-4 都市發展模式與學校建設費用 49

第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論 51
6-2 建議 54
6-3 相關後續研究方向 55




參考文獻 I-V
參考文獻 (一)中文文獻
中華民國學校建築研究學會,《學校建築與校園規劃專題研究》,台灣書店,1986。
中華民國學校建築研究學會,《國民中小學學校建築與設備專題研究》,台灣書店,1988。
林憲德,《國民中小學綠建築規劃基準之調查研究》,2001。
林憲德,《國民中小學綠建築設計規範之研究》,2001。
江哲銘,《永續綠色健康學校校園建築環境教材建立計畫》,教育部研究計畫,2001。
黃耀榮,《國民小學學校建築計畫及設計問題之研究調查》,內政部建築研究所籌備處,1990。
教育部國民教育司編,《國民中小學設計標準》,中正書局,1994。
黃世孟、周鼎金、蔡淑瑩,《台北市立學校建築規劃基準之調查研究 :國民小學、國民中學及高級中學》,中華民國建築師學會,1999。
黃世孟,《學校建築研究-黃世孟學校建築論文集》,建築情報季刊雜誌社,2000。
內政部建築研究所,蕭江碧、陳瑞玲、林憲德,《國民中小學綠建築設計規範之研究》,2001。
陳瑞玲等,《台灣建築物生命週期使用年限調查之研究》,內政部建築研究所,2001。
謝定亞、郭斯傑、許鎧麟,《應用生命週期成本分析提高公共建設效益之研究》,行政院公共工程委員會委託台灣營建研究院研究專案,2002。
湯志民,《台灣的學校建築》,五南圖書出版,2002
湯志民,《優質學校環境規劃探析》,五南圖書出版,2002
湯志民,《永續發展的校園與建築》,中華民國學校建築研究學會,2003。
林憲德,《綠色建築》,詹氏書局,2003。
余德義,《台南市日新國小創校八十五週年校慶特刊》,台南市:日新國小,2003。
林憲德,《永續校園的生態與節能計畫》,詹氏書局,2004。


(二)論文期刊
曾漢珍,《國民小學學校建築規劃設計合理化之研究》,台灣大學博士論文,1993。
陳燕菁,《學校建築維護管理之探討-以台北市國民小學為例》,臺灣大學土木工程學碩論,1997。
林明志,《學校建築生命週期履歷表之研究 - 以台北市國民小學為例》,臺灣大學土木工程學碩論,1998。
戴佑安,《以生命週期成本觀點論大學圖書館建築營運管理之研究》,臺灣大學土木工程學碩論,1998。
李魁鵬,《台灣四大都會區都市熱島之研究》,成功大學建築博論,1999。
張又升,《建築物生命週期二氧化碳減量評估》,成功大學建築碩論,2000。
歐金定,《都市型社區小學之社會與空間計畫書研究》,淡江大學建築碩論,2000。
蔡世祿,《國民小學校園校舍建築規模規劃基準之研究》,臺灣大學土木工程學博論,2001。
林達志,《國民中小學生態環境基礎研究—綠化、基地保水、用水、用電之解析》,成功大學建築碩論,2002。
王振如,《大專院校生態環境基礎研究--用電耗能、綠化與保水》,成功大學建築碩論,2002。
葉育廷,《校園空間對於都市集居環境內生物生存空間留設潛力之研究-以台南市國小校園為例》,成功大學建築碩論,2003
嚴佳茹,《921災後重建小學與開放式小學生態節能環境現況解析》,成功大學建築碩論,2004。
何晨瑛,《台灣綠色小學校園生態環境現況解析之研究》,成功大學建築碩論,2004。
張家瑞,《體育館建築生命週期成本之研究—以台大新舊體育館為例》,臺灣大學土木工程學碩論,2005。
劉建志,《台南市立國民中小學學校建築永續利用之研究-以修繕更新工程為主軸》,成功大學建築碩論,2005。
鄭旭峰,《台南市國民中小學校舍節能配置之研究》,成功大學建築碩論,2005。
李嘉健,《既有學校建築設備維護管理機制之研究-以台北地區公立國民中學校為例》,國立臺北科技大學建築碩論,2006。
相原士郎,〈公共建築の管理について〉,《建築と積算》,日本建築積算協會,1983、12月
神戶市住宅局營善部、Ⅱニ大阪大學工學建築工學教室岡田研究室,保全のに基準策定關 する調查研究-《神戶市公共建築物の計畫保全調查》Ⅱ,1987.
柏原士郎,〈公共建築の管理維護をえる〉,《建築雜誌》,1993.10
崔竣榮、岡田光正、柏原士郎、吉村英佑、橫田隆司,〈建物の壽命とその分佈の推定方法に關する研究-K市の公共建築を對象にした場合〉,《日本建築學會計畫系論文報告集》,1989.8
加藤裕久、小松幸夫,〈木造專用住宅の壽命に關する調查研究〉,《日本建築學會計畫系論文報告集》,1986.5
內田詳哉,〈コンクリート建築は歷史的建造物となり得るか〉,《新建築》,1982.2
安間昭雄,〈最新耐用年數表〉,《稅務經理協會》,1994.7
八木康夫、柏原士郎、吉村英佑、橫田隆司、阪田弘一,〈ァンケート調查からみた建築の壽命に對する設計者の意識につぃて〉《日本建築學會計畫系論文集》,第50號,1999。


(二)日文文獻
小原誠,《長生き建築のしくみイ-フサライクル計畫論》,彰國社,2002。
巽和夫、柏原士郎、古阪秀山,《進化する建築保全…..LCCからFMらまで》,學芸出版社,2002。
藤本盛久編,《構造物の技術史 構造物の資料集成事典》,市ケ谷出版社,2001
內田祥哉,《建築生產のオープソシステム》,彰國社,1977。
大阪市建築技術協會、建築保全研究會,《公共建築の保全を考ぇるストツク時代の保全システムをめざして-》, 1999


(三)英文文獻
Arnold Pacey, Technology in World Civilization ; “A Thousand-year History”,1989.
Bjorn Berge, The Ecology of Building Materials, Architectural Press,2000.
Charles J. Kibert ,Jan Sendzimir, G. Bradley Guy, Construction Ecology:Nature As The Basis for Green Buildings,Spon Press,2002.
Charles J. Kibert, Reshaping the Built Environment, Island Press,1999.
Corbusier, Le, Vers une architecture, Paris: G. Cres ,1923.
Daniel D.Chiras, The New Ecological Home: the complete guide to green building options, Chelsea Green ,2004.
Fred A. Stitt, Editor, Ecological Design Handbook, McGraw-Hill,1999.
Heliasa.Udo de Haes…..,Life-Cycle Impact assessment: striving towards best practice, Setac Press,1998.
John Wiley &Sons Limited, Green Architecture,Wiley-Academy,2001.
J. William Thompson and Kim Sorvig, Sustainable Landscape Construction , Island Press,2000.
Josef Leitmann , Sustaining Cities : environmental planning and Management in urban design ,Hcgraw-Hill,1999.
Janine M. BenYus , Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired By Nature ,Perennial,1998.
John Wiley &Sons.INC, Design with Nature, Ianl Macharg ,1992.
Jurgen Joedicke, A History of Modern Architecture, Architectural Press,1959.
Miguel Ruano, Eco urbanismo Eco urbanism , Editorial Gustavo Gili,SA,1998.
Mary Ann Curran, Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment,McGraw-Hill,1996.
Max Wallace , Archigram , 1964-1971, New York :Praeger Publishers,1964.
Nancy Jack Todd &John Todd, From Eco-Cities to Living Machines, North Atlantic Books Berkeley ,California, 1993.
Randall Thomas Max Fordham LLP, Sustainable urban Design: an environmental approach edited by randall Thomas, Spon Press, 2003.
Simon Bell and Stephen Morse, Measuring Sustainability Learning by Doing, Earthscan Publications Limited,2003.
William McDonough & Michael Braungart, Remaking the way we mark things,North Point Press,2002.

 


如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw