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系統識別號 U0026-0509201114344600
論文名稱(中文) 探討大專院校學生憂鬱傾向、休閒活動參與及休閒阻礙之關係
論文名稱(英文) The Relationship among Depression, and Leisure Participation and Leisure Constraints in College Students
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 蔡馨栴
學號 rb697110
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-07-23
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-周學雯
共同指導教授-陳柏熹
口試委員-李晶
口試委員-涂國誠
關鍵字(中) 大專生
憂鬱傾向
休閒活動
休閒阻礙
關鍵字(英) College students
Depression
Leisure activities
Leisure constraints
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在瞭解大專院校學生憂鬱傾向、休閒活動參與以及休閒阻礙之現況,更進一步探討憂鬱傾向對於休閒活動參與以及休閒阻礙之影響。本研究以台南市國立成功大學之學生為對象,採取自陳式問卷量表填答,問卷共分四部分,分別為:個人背景變項調查、台灣人憂鬱量表、休閒活動調查表以及休閒阻礙量表,依照性別、學院、年級做分層抽樣,共獲得有效問卷505份。結果顯示:一、研究所比大學部學生更為憂鬱、每天使用網路時數較高者比較低者來的憂鬱。二、憂鬱傾向較高的大專生在休閒中偏好媒體型休閒活動、互動情形為即使有他人陪伴也較少與他人互動。三、憂鬱傾向較高的大專生有較高的休閒阻礙、個人內在阻礙、人際間阻礙以及結構性阻礙。四、整體憂鬱程度以及憂鬱身體、認知、情緒構面與整體休閒阻礙以及個人內在、人際間、以及結構阻礙呈現正向顯著的關係。
根據以上結果可得知憂鬱對於休閒阻礙具有一定的影響力,亦會影響休閒活動的參與情形。建議未來相關研究可實際提出解決憂鬱傾向較高者休閒阻礙之方法,以及擴大相關研究至不同族群,使憂鬱與休閒之相關研究更臻完善。
英文摘要 The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among the various dimensions of depression, leisure activities and leisure constraints in college. In this survey, we recruited National Cheng Kung University undergraduate and graduate students and used self-respondents Questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts:1. Personal background information. 2. Taiwanese Depression Scale. 3. Leisure activity investigation. 4. Leisure constraint scale. A total of 505 valid questionnaires were collected by stratified sampling.
The findings are as follows:1. The graduate students are more depressed than the undergraduate students. 2. Compared to the students using internet lower hours per day, the higher are more depressed. 3. The students in higher level depression preferred media-based leisure activities. They have less interaction with other, even though they accompany with someone during leisure activities. 4. The students in higher depression level tends to have higher leisure constraints, the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints. 5. The overall depression (physical, cognitive, emotional level) and three dimensions of leisure constraints (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints) have significant positive correlation.
The result of this study showed depression has some influence on leisure constraints, and also effects on participation of leisure activity. According our findings, future researchs may actually find out solutions of leisure constraints with higher depressed and expanding the research to different groups.
論文目次 目錄

第壹章 緒論 .................1
第一節 問題背景 .................1
第二節 研究動機與目的.............3
第三節 研究範圍與限制.............3
第四節 名詞釋義..................4
第五節 研究重要性................4
第貳章 文獻探討..................5
第一節 休閒之定義以及益處..........5
第二節 休閒阻礙..................7
第三節 休閒活動分類...............9
第四節 大學生憂鬱情況.............10
第參章 研究方法..................13
第一節 研究架構..................13
第二節 研究流程..................14
第三節 研究假設..................16
第四節 研究樣本及數量.............16
第五節 研究工具..................18
第六節 資料處理與統計方法..........21
第肆章 結果.......................23
第一節 有效樣本背景變項特性分析......23
第二節 大專生憂鬱傾向、休閒活動參與及休閒阻礙結果分析.....27
第三節 憂鬱傾向實驗性因素分析........................33
第四節 背景變項與憂鬱傾向、休閒阻礙之關係...............35
第五節 憂鬱傾向與休閒活動、休閒阻礙相關之分析............41
第伍章 討論......................53
第一節 大專院校學生之憂鬱、休閒參與以及休閒阻礙情況之討論..53
第二節 憂鬱對於休閒參與以及休閒阻礙之討論...............56
第陸章 結論與建議.................58
第一節 結論......................58
第二節 研究建議...................59
參考文獻..........................61
附錄一:問卷.......................67
附錄二:專家效度審查................71
附錄三:邱朋潭問卷使用同意書..........73
附錄四:國立成功大學醫學院人體試驗委員會同意書...........74
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911034056
論文名稱(中文) 活潑快板與柔和慢板音樂對女大學生壓力反應之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Vivace-Allegro and Andante-Adagio Music on Stress Responses in Female College Students
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 92
學期 1
出版年 93
研究生(中文) 陳永宏
學號 s8689401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2003-12-25
論文頁數 23頁
口試委員 指導教授-游一龍
口試委員-楊建銘
口試委員-陸汝斌
關鍵字(中) 音樂治療
壓力反應
大學生
關鍵字(英) music therapy
college students
stress responses
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究的目的在於檢驗「活潑快板與柔和慢板音樂降低女大學生壓力反應的效果」;其中,活潑快板音樂(Vivace-Allegro, VA)與柔和慢板音樂(Antante-Adagoi, AA)為實驗組;控制組分為無聲控制組(No-music Control, NC)與聲音控制組(Sound Control, SC);依變項為壓力反應,包括生理(physiological)與心理(psychological)反應;生理反應包含心跳率(heart rate, HR)、指溫(finger temperature, FT)、以及膚電反應(skin conduction response, SCR),心理反應包括焦慮(anxiety, ANX)、憂鬱(depressive symptoms, DEP)、以及專注力(concentration, CON)。研究對象為成大護理學系自願參加的女生共90人,採隨機分派(randomized)、單次實驗介入(single trial experimental intervention)、前後測(pre- and posttest)之研究設計來驗證本研究的目。
研究結果發現,本研究採用的壓力操弄方法可有效引發急性壓力(acute stress),提高心跳率、膚電反應、以及焦慮反應,降低指溫,不影響憂鬱反應與專注力,符合本研究預期。處於急性壓力狀態下的受試者接受音樂介入後,無論聆聽活潑快板音樂或柔和慢板音樂均比沒有接受音樂介入的控制組更可回復壓力引發之心跳率、指溫、以及焦慮反應。最後,將針對研究結果進行討論並提出實務上的建議。
英文摘要 Context. Many investigators claimed the effectiveness of stress reduction when andante (slow tempi) and adagio (flowing melodies & soft dynamics) instrumental music was employed in the listening programs. Some music therapists recommended that the patient’s physiological and mental tempo ought to match the music tempo to gain the most beneficial effects. Such recommendation, as revealed in the earlier “iso-principle”, predicted that the anxiety patients, characterized by irritability and agitation, could be stimulated when they heard the vivace and allegro music. However, an andante and adagio music produced rejection or indifference in these patients.
Objective. The present study aimed to examine both the physiological and psychological responses in a stress situation and the modulating effects of Vivace-Allegro and Andante-Adagio music on these stress-associated responses.
Design. A randomized, physiological/psychological measure, single trial experimental intervention with control groups.
Setting. Music Therapy Laboratory located at National Chung Kung University, College of Medicine in Tainan, Taiwan.
Participants. Ninety female college students with a mean age of 22 years were recruited.
Intervention. Interventions of music listening following the experimental stress.
Main Outcome Measures. Pre- and postintervention measurements of heart rate, finger temperature, skin conduction response, anxiety, depression, and concentration.
Results. Physiological/psychological measure alterations following our stress-induced protocol confirmed the validity of the acute stress situation used. The stress situation enhanced the heart rate, skin conduction response, and self-report anxiety, while decreased the finger temperature. The music listening groups exhibited more dramatic decreases in heart rates and anxiety as compared to control groups.
Conclusions. Listening to an episode of music, regardless of Vivace-allegro or Andante-Adagio music, may effectively reverse acute stress-induced changes in heart rate, finger temperature and anxiety.
論文目次 ABSTRACT---------------------------------------------Ⅰ
CONTENTS---------------------------------------------Ⅳ
1 INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------ 1
2 METHODS ----------------------------------------------- 4
2.1 Subjects------------------------------------------ 4
2.2 Setting and Materials----------------------------- 5
2.3 Procedures---------------------------------------- 7
2.4 Statistical Analysis------------------------------ 8
3 RESULTS -----------------------------------------------10
3.1 Effectiveness of stress manipulation method-------10
3.2 Effects of music on stress responses--------------11
4 DISCUSSION--------------------------------------------12
REFERENCES--------------------------------------------15
參考文獻 REFERENCES

1. Aitken JC, Wilson S, Coury D, Moursi AM. The effect of music distraction on pain, anxiety and behavior in pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent. 24(2):114-118, 2002.
2. Allen K, Golden L, Izzo JL, Ching MI, Forrest A, Niles CR, Niswander PR, Barlow JC. Normailization of hypertensive responses during ambulatory surgical stress by preoperative music. Psychosom Med. 63:487-492, 1994.
3. Altshuler IM. A psychiatrist's experience with music as a therapeutic agent. In: Schullian D, Schoen M, eds. Music and Medicine. New York: Henry Schuman. 266-281, 1984.
4. Baliey LM. The effects of live music versus tape-recorded music on hospitalized cancer patients. Music Ther. 3:17-28, 1983.
5. Bampton P, Draper B. Effect of relaxation music on patient tolerance of gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. J Clin Gastroenterol. 25(1):343-345, 1997.
6. Bartlett D. Physiological responses to music and sound stimuli. In: Hodges DA. ed. Handbook of Music Psychology. 2nd ed. San Antonio: University of Texas. 343-385, 1996.
7. Benenzon BO. Music Therapy: Theory and Manual / Contributions to The Knowledge of Nonverbal Contexts. 2nd ed. Springfield IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 40-49, 1997.
8. Burns SJIB, Harbuz MS, Hucklebridge F, Bunt L. A pilot study into the therapeutic effects of music therapy at a cancer help center. Altern Ther Health Med. 7(1):48-56, 2001.
9. Cook JD. Music as an intervention in the oncology setting. Cancer Nurs. 9:23-28, 1986.
10. Elliott D. The effects of music and muscle relaxation on patient anxiety in a coronary care unit. Heart Lung. 23(1):27-35, 1994.
11. Good M. Relaxation techniques for surgical patients. Am J Nurs. 95:38-42, 1995.
12. Guzzetta CE. Effects of relaxation and music therapy on patients in a coronary care unit with presumptive acute myocardial infarction. Heart Lung. 18(6):609-616, 1989.
13. Hanser SB. Relaxing through pain and anxiety at the extremities of life. In: Wigram T, Backer JD, Eds. Clinical Applications of Music Therapy in Psychiatry. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 158-175, 1999.
14. Iwanaga M, Moroki Y. Subjective and physiological responses to music stimuli controlled over activity and preference. J Music Ther. 36(1):26-38, 1999.
15. Kerr T, Walsh J, Marshall A. Emotional change processes in music-assisted reframing. J Music Ther. 38(3):193-211, 2001.
16. Knight WEJ, Rickard NS. Relaxing music prevents stress-inducted increases in subjective anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy meals and females. J Music Ther. 38(4):254-272, 2001.
17. Linda C, Donna E, Mary G, Joey W. Effects of a single music therapy intervention on anxiety, discomfort, satisfaction, and compliance with screening guidelines in outpatients undergoing flexible sigmoidosocopy. Gastroenterol Nurs. 23(4):148-156, 2000.
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200911070103
論文名稱(中文) 大專學生借貸態度研究—自消費文化與人格特質觀點探討
論文名稱(英文) none
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業與資訊管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial and Information Management
學年度 92
學期 2
出版年 93
研究生(中文) 林為翰
學號 r3691131
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2004-05-30
論文頁數 76頁
口試委員 指導教授-徐強
口試委員-李元墩
口試委員-胡國強
關鍵字(中) 內外控傾向
大專學生
風險態度
借貸態度
消費文化
關鍵字(英) college students
locus of control
risk attitude
loan attitude
consumption culture
學科別分類
中文摘要   政府從民國八十起年推動金融自由化,放寛銀行設立的限制,高度競爭的結果使得國內銀行業的服務水準逐漸提升,新金融商品的開發亦有長足的進展。對消費者而言,能有如此多樣化的金融商品可供選擇固然可喜,但由於這些新金融商品的普及,加上消費型態與社會價值觀的改變,借款人擺脫過去向「人」開口伸手借錢時令人難堪的面子問題;人不再是向人借錢,而是向機器(提款機、刷卡機)借錢,使得負債觀念已脫離了傳統價值觀與道德標準的束縛。
  本研究從年輕族群人格特質與消費文化的觀點出發,並以學生族群為研究對象,分析不同的人格特質與消費文化意識是否會造成學生族群借貸行為之差異,以及個人的風險態度與消費文化意識是否對借貸行為具有預測效果。研究過程採用問卷分析法,配合統計分析對台灣地區大專學生進行實証研究,共回收655份問卷,分析結果總結如下:
 一、內控傾向集群相較於外控傾向的集群會尋求在風險與收益之間取得平衡,並且具有較高程度的風險承受力;而外控傾向集群,則是對保險商品的接受程度較高。
 二、不同風險態度的學生族群表現在消費文化意識上存在顯著差異。風險愛好者在「個體性消費傾向」以及「享樂消費傾向」的程度較其他兩個集群明顯。
 三、風險態度因素對學生族群的借貸態度與行為具有正向之預測能力。當個人的風險態度為風險愛好集群時,較有可能在本身可用資金不足的情況下,使用借錢的手段進行消費。
 四、從消費文化意識的構成因素進行分析後發現,「炫耀性消費傾向」、「個體性消費傾向」以及「物質主義消費傾向」三個消費文化意識的因素對學生族群的借貸行為存在正向的預測能力。
英文摘要 none



論文目次 摘要..........................................I
致謝.........................................II
目錄........................................III
表目錄........................................V
圖目錄......................................VII
第一章 緒論..................................1
 第一節 研究背景與動機......................1
 第二節 研究目的............................2
 第三節 研究對象與限制......................3
 第四節 研究流程............................5
第二章 文獻探討..............................7
 第一節 消費文化相關文獻探討................7
 第二節 風險態度與內外控人格相關文獻探討...18
 第三節 消費性貸款.........................24
第三章 研究方法.............................29
 第一節 研究架構...........................29
 第二節 變數之操作型定義...................30
 第三節 研究假設...........................31
 第四節 研究對象與抽樣設計.................31
 第五節 問卷設計...........................32
 第六節 資料分析方法.......................33
第四章 研究結果與討論.......................37
 第一節 敘述性統計分析.....................37
 第二節 各研究構面之信度檢定...............38
 第三節 各研究構面之因素分析...............42
 第四節 各研究構面之集群、區別分析.........44
 第五節 各研究構面與各集群間之差異分析.....52
 第六節 研究構面之迴歸分析.................55
 第七節 研究結果討論.......................57
第五章 結論與建議...........................60
 第一節 研究結論...........................60
 第二節 研究結果之實務性建議...............62
 第三節 後續研究建議.......................63
參考文獻.....................................65
研究問卷.................................... 71

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------------------------------------------------------------------------ 第 4 筆 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
系統識別號 U0026-0812200911414591
論文名稱(中文) 台灣南部大學生使用搖頭丸心理因子探討
論文名稱(英文) Cognitive determinants of MDMA use among college students in southern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生(中文) 余睿羚
學號 s8691405
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2005-07-30
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 口試委員-程炳林
召集委員-董旭英
指導教授-柯慧貞
關鍵字(中) 社會影響
拒用自我效能
效果預期
搖頭丸
大學生
關鍵字(英) MDMA
college students
outcome expectancy
MDMA refusing self-efficacy
social influence
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
國外研究指出大學生使用搖頭丸盛行率逐年升高,而國內搖頭丸查緝量與精神醫療院所通報搖頭丸濫用人數也逐年增加。國外報告已指出大學生使用搖頭丸盛行率逐年上升,而國內則尚未有相關調查,故本研究於2003年調查台灣南部大專院校學生搖頭丸使用盛行率;此外,國外研究多為盛行率調查,較缺乏相關因子之探討。理論上,社會學習理論重視以效果預期和自我效能來預測個體行為,而理性行為理論則強調以社會影響和行為意圖來預測個體行為,此兩理論廣被運用於預測個體行為研究上,本研究同時整合上述理論來探討效果預期、自我效能感、社會影響及意圖等認知因子對大學生使用搖頭丸之意圖與行為的預測力。

研究目的
本研究的目的有(一)調查2003年南部大專院校學生搖頭丸使用之盛行率;(二)以Attitude-Social influence-Efficacy模式(ASE Model)為基礎,探討大專院校學生使用搖頭丸之認知因子。

研究方法
(1)受試者:以南部大專院校學生為母群體,依學院、學制分層,再以叢集抽樣法抽取系級,共抽出5,137人,其中,3,741名參與研究(回收率73%)。(2)研究工具:個人資料表、使用搖頭丸意圖、搖頭丸正向效果預期、拒用搖頭丸自我效能(含朋友邀約、忘掉負面情緒及追求刺激)、社會影響(包含重要他人是否使用搖頭丸及知覺週遭使用盛行率)及搖頭丸使用等量表。(3)研究程序:2003年11月至12月間對抽樣學生進行問卷施測,施測前強調資料保密性,資料分析後給予參與研究同學結果回饋、毒品衛教單及紀念小禮物。(4)統計方法:由描述性統計之次數分配表得知南部大專院校學生搖頭丸使用之盛行率。再利用結構方程模式分析模式資料,探討南部大專院校學生使用搖頭丸之認知因子。

研究結果
分析無遺漏值(完整填答)之3,090份問卷得知,搖頭丸使用盛行率為1.0%(32人)。研究提出之模式有理想的整體適配度,適合用來解釋大學生使用搖頭丸資料。結果顯示正向效果預期對使用搖頭丸意圖與行為均無顯著影響;拒用搖頭丸自我效能與社會影響透過意圖影響使用搖頭丸行為,也能夠直接影響使用搖頭丸行為;使用搖頭丸意圖越高者越可能使用搖頭丸。本研究提出之模式解釋大學生搖頭丸使用意圖與行為之解釋量分別為16%與18%。

結論與建議
拒用自我效能與社會影響為預測大學生使用搖頭丸之重要因素,而正向效果預期則透過上述兩因素來影響使用搖頭丸意圖與行為,未來研究可進行模式之修正,深入探討拒用自我效能、社會影響及正向效果預期三者間之關係。此外,建議大專院校應積極落實校園毒品防治計畫,並利用縱貫性研究追蹤調查大學生搖頭丸使用盛行率資料,進而探討相關危險因子之因果關係與歷年盛行率之改變。藉由相關單位多方努力共同降低搖頭丸使用盛行率並矯正使用搖頭丸之偏差行為,例如法務部與警察相關單位可加強搖頭丸走私之查緝與搖頭店之取締;教育部可推動大學校園毒品防治計畫與成效評估方案;立法院可修訂學校衛生法,明定大學校園內應設置專業校園心理師以有效推動與執行校園毒品三級預防計畫。




英文摘要   This study was aimed to examine the Attitudes-Social influence-Efficacy Model for the use of MDMA among college students in Taiwan. A representative sample of 3,743 college students participated in this study. Each participant completed a comprehensive survey and 3,090 valid data were collected. Correlation analyses displayed that either positive outcome expectancy or social influence were positively related to intention while refusal self-efficacy was negatively associated with intention. The results using the Structural Equation Model showed that the model fitted the data well. Intention for using MDMA affected MDMA use. Refusing self-efficacy and social influence had a direct impact on intention or MDMA use as well as indirect effect on MDMA use via intention. However, positive outcome expectancy did not have an effect on both intention and the use of MDMA. Our results suggested that preventive programs in colleges for the MDMA use should focus on developing strategies in decreasing the social influence and enhancing the refusal self-efficacy.



論文目次 中文摘要………………………………………………I
英文摘要………………………………………………III
目錄……………………………………………………V
附錄……………………………………………………VI
表目錄…………………………………………………VII
圖目錄…………………………………………………VIII

第一章 緒論……………………………………………01
 第一節、何謂搖頭丸…………………………………01
 第二節、搖頭丸對人類身心健康影響之相關研究…02
 第三節、國內外搖頭丸濫用情形……………………03
 第四節、大學生搖頭丸濫用嚴重……………………04
 第五節、從認知因子探討大學生使用搖頭丸行為…07
 第六節、研究目的……………………………………12
第二章 研究方法………………………………………14
 第一節、研究架構……………………………………14
 第二節、研究樣本……………………………………14
 第三節、研究工具……………………………………15
 第四節、研究程序……………………………………18
 第五節、資料處理……………………………………19
第三章 研究結果………………………………………21
 第一節、基本資料之分析……………………………21
 第二節、量表相關變項分析…………………………21
 第三節、南部大專院校學生使用搖頭丸盛行率……22
 第四節、有無使用搖頭丸之南部大學生在認知因子
     上的差異……………………………………24
 第五節、模式結果……………………………………27
第四章 討論、結論及建議……………………………30
 第一節、討論…………………………………………30
 第二節、結論與建議…………………………………36
第五章 參考文獻………………………………………39
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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915325179
論文名稱(中文) 醫學生及非醫學生對高齡者知識與態度調查及比較-以南部一所大學為例
論文名稱(英文) A Study of Medical and Non-Medical College Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Older People in a University in Southern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 林志都
學號 tc696101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2009-07-27
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 召集委員-顏啟華
口試委員-彭巧珍
指導教授-劉立凡
關鍵字(中) 高齡者
大學生
從事與高齡者相關工作之意願
知識
態度
醫學生
關鍵字(英) College Students
Knowledge
Attitude
Medical Students
Elders
Willingness to work with Elders
學科別分類
中文摘要 在2009年3月底,台灣的高齡人口比例已超過10.4%。隨著人口老化比率急速增高,因此對於高齡者相關的研究也越形重要。即將踏入社會的大學生們對於高齡者的知識與態度,也將影響他們如何面對一個高齡化的職場。而在醫療專業上,這些知識與態度更形重要,因為其可
能會影響到對高齡患者的治療策略,以及醫療資源的分配。但在台灣卻少有針對大學生對高齡者的知識與態度的研究。本研究之目的即在調查並探討醫學生與非醫學院之大學生對於高齡者的知識與態度之程度、其從事與高齡者之工作的意願,與其影響因子。

本研究針對台灣南部某大學中之醫學系所有學生,以與其數量相當之非醫學院之大學生採方便取樣,以結構性問卷方式調查其對高齡者之知識與態度,其中對高齡者知識以Palmore’s Facts on Ageing Quiz 1 調查、對高齡者之一般態度以Polizzi 版Ageing Semantic Differential 調查、對高齡者之醫療態度以UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale 調查,共收得有效問卷540 份(醫學系299 份,非醫學院學生241 份),佔回收問卷之85.2%。以t-test、費雪正確機率考驗、Pearson相關係數、變異量分析、線性回歸及邏輯斯迴歸等統計方法加以分析後,發現大學生對高齡者的知識正確度中等(平均總分53.30),但低於美國近年針對醫學生之研究結果;在一般態度方面,受試大學生之態度傾向輕微正向(平均每題分數為3.33),優於針對美國及西班牙之大學生的相關研究結果所發現之輕微負向態度;在老年醫療態度上,醫學生之態度傾向輕微正向(平均每題分數為3.39),低於英美與新加坡之相關研究結果(3.58~3.9)。同時男女大學生對於高齡者均有負面或錯誤的固有印象,其中男性較強調身心的退化狀態,如「對性缺乏興趣或能力、動作遲緩、散漫糊塗、令人絕望」,而女性則較強調個性上的固有印象,如「易怒、愛抱怨、不公平的、悲觀的」。對於大學生對高齡者的知識與其對高齡者的一般態度及老年醫
療態度間有正向的相關性(Pearson 相關係數分別為0.270 與.269),同時一般態度與老年醫療態度間也有正向相關性(Pearson 相關係數為0.315)。醫學養成教育的有無與大學生對高齡者知識與態度之間並無關係。醫學生與非醫學生之間對高齡者的知識與態度並無統計學上之顯著差異(p 值均大於0.05)。同時醫學生之高年級與中低年級間對高齡者的知識並沒有統計學上的差異(p 值=0.448)。但在一般態度與老年醫療態度上,高年級醫學生的態度則有顯著的負向相關(p 值<0.05),顯示高年級醫學生之一般與老年醫療態度較中低年級來得負向。在大學生考慮選擇與高齡者相關的工作的影響因子中,最有顯著性的是其態度量表分數,以及醫學生的年齡。態度量表分數越高,以及20 到24 歲的醫學生,較有可能選擇與高齡者相關之工作。影響大學生對高齡者知識的因子為「家庭組成」、「與(外)祖父母互動」及「與高齡者接觸的感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.050),其中三代同堂者知識量表分數最低,其他家庭組成者之分數則較其為高。與(外)祖父母「蠻常聯絡」或「天天見面或通電話」者,以及與高齡者接觸感覺「沒特別感覺」、「不錯」及「很好」者,其知識量表分數較高。影響大學生對高齡者的一般態度的因子為:「性別」、「家庭組成」、「與(外)祖父母互動」及「與高齡者接觸感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.166)。女性的一般態度分數也呈負相關,較男性為低(p=0.008);三代同堂者態度量表分數最低,其他家庭組成者之分數則較其為高。與(外)祖父母互動較頻繁者,其一般態度也顯著較高 (p=0.033~0.010);而與高齡者接觸感受正面或中性
者,其態度均比感受「不舒服」者為正向,且有統計上之顯著性(p<0.05)。影響醫學生對高齡者之老年醫療態度的因子則為:「組別」、「年齡群」、「性別」、「與(外)祖父母互動」、「有無
照顧高齡者經驗」及「與高齡者接觸感受」(p<0.05,adjusted R squared=0.152)。其中醫學系高年級、祖父母已逝世、無照顧高齡者經驗者之態度呈負相關(p 值分別為0.026、0.047 與0.024),20 至24 歲(p=0.028)、女性(p=0.007)、常常與(外)祖父母聯絡(p=0.045)、及與高齡者接觸感受為「不錯」(p=0.041)及「很好」(p=0.027)者,對高齡者之老年醫療態度有正向相關。

本研究顯示大學生間的知識與態度分數,不論其社會人口學上的差異,並無統計上之顯著差異,顯示其身為社會中之同一年齡相近之世代,對高齡者有著相近的認知與想法。相關文獻顯示經由持續的資訊強化,可提升對高齡者的知識正確度與態度正向性。因此在大學教育與醫學養成教育中加入更多與高齡者相關的課程,應該能有效地增進大學生們對高齡者的知識正確性,及對高齡者的正向態度,以培養大學生們面對一個日漸高齡化社會所需有的準備與正確心態,並提高其選擇與高齡者相關工作之意願。
英文摘要 By the end of March, 2009, the percentage of agig population in Taiwan has risen to over 10.4%. As the population ages quickly, research related to elderly people becomes more and more important nowadays. The knowledge and attitudes of the college students, who are about to start working in a few years, will affect how they face a graying occupational environment. And this issue will become even more important for the future medical professionals, since it may affect theirtherapeutic strategies towards their elderly patients, as well as the allocation of medical resources.But there are very few studies concerning to college tudents’ knowledge and attitudes towards
elderly people in Taiwan. This research’s objective is to investigate the degree of college students’(both medical students and non-medical ones) knowledge about and attitudes towards elderly people, their willingness to work with elder people, and the factors which affect these knowledge and attitudes.

This research applies a convenience sampling method, and has as samples all medical students in a university in Southern Taiwan, as well as a group of non-medical students, of similar number to those medical students. These students’ knowledge and attitudes towards the elder people are investigated using structured questionnaires. The knowledge about elders is investigated using
Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quiz 1, and for the general attitude towards elder people, Polizzi’s revised version of Aging Semantic Differential is applied. In order to investigate the geriatrics attitudes, this research uses the UCLA Geriatrics Attitudes Scale. 540 effective questionnaires were recovered, which is 85.2% of the total amount of questionnaires administered. 299 of the
questionnaires are from medical students and 241 of them from non-medical ones. After statistics analysis with tools like independent t-test, Fisher’s exact probability test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Wald Chi-Square test, logistic and linear
regression, this research finds out that the college students have a moderate level of knowledge on the elderly people, with a mean score of 53.30, which is lower than the result of similar researcheswith medical students in the US in recent years. As to the general attitudes towards elderly people,the subjects in question have a slightly positive attitude (mean score of each question=3.33) , which
is better then the results of recent researches in the US and in Spain,that demonstrated negative attitudes among college students (both medical and non-medical) towards elderly people. But when it comes to geriatrics attitudes, though the tested medical students have a slightly positive attitude (mean score for each question= 3.39), the score is lower than the results of similar research in the UK, US and Singapore, which range from a mean score of 3.58 to 3.9. College students in this research also prove to have negative images or erroneous stereotype about elderly people: while the male students stress on the mental and physical deterioration of elderly people such like “lack of
interest of capability in sexual activities, too slow for modern society, less organized and more confused, despairing”, the female students focus more on the character stereotyping: “angry, crabby,unfair, pessimistic”. There is a positive correlation among college students’knowledge about elderly people and their general and geriatric attitudes towards elderly people, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.270 and 0.269 respectively; while there is also a positive correlation
between their general attitudes and geriatrics attitudes, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.315. Having or not background of medical education has no relation with college students’s knowledge about and attitudes towards elderly people: there is no statistical relevance between
medical and non-medical students’ knowledge and attitude (p<0.05). Meanwhile, there is no statistical difference between the knowledge level of senior medical students and junior ones (p=0.448); but in both general and geriatrics attitudes, senior medical students have a statistically
more negative attitude than junior ones (p<0.05). The most important factors affecting college students’ willingness of choosing a job related to working with elderly people, are their grades in their attitudes scales and the age group for the medical students. Higher mean scores in the attitudes scales and medical students of 20 to 24 years old, are associated with higher possibility of choosing
a job related to working with elder people. The factors which affect college student’s knowledge level about elderly people are the “Family structure”, “Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people” (p<0.05, adjusted R squared=0.050). The students who live with their grandparent have the lowest scores in the knowledge scale, while students of other family structures score significantly higher. “Frequent interaction with” and “Daily visit or phonecalls to” grandparents, and feeling “Nothing special”,“Not bad”or“Good”about interaction
with elderly people are associated with higher scores in the knowledge scale. The factors affecting college students’ general attitude towards elderly people are: “Gender”, “Family structure”,“Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people”(p<0.05, adjusted R squared= 0.166). Female students have lower scores than male ones (p=0.008). The students who live with their grandparent have the lowest scores in the general attitude scale. Those who have more frequent interaction with their grandparents, have a higher general attitude score (p=0.033~0.010). Those who perceive their interaction with elderly people as
positive or neutral, have higher scores in general attitude scale than those who rank their interaction
as “Not comfortable”, with statistical relevance (p<0.05). The factors affecting geriatrics attitudes
towards elderly people are “Groups”, “Gender”, “Having or not experience taking care of elderly people”, “Interaction with grandparents” and “Overall perception about interaction with elderly people”(p<0.05, adjusted R squared=0.153). Senior medical students and those whose grandparents have deceased or who do not have experience taking care of elderly people are associated with
lower geriatrics attitudes score (p=0.026, 0.047 and 0.024 respectively), while female students (p=0.007), quite frequent interaction with grandparents (p=0.045), and those who perceive their interaction with elderly people as “Not bad” (p=0.041) or “Good” (p=0.027), have higher
geriactrics attitude score.
This research demonstrates that despite of their socio-demographic difference, there is no statistical
difference among college students concerning to their scores in knowledge and attitude scales. This proves that, as a cohort of similar age groups, they share similar cognition and feelings about elderly people. Related literatures have demonstrated that through constant information and education, the knowledge level about elderly people can be improved, as well as the attitude
towards them. Therefore, adding more courses related to the elderly population in the college as well as in the medical education, should be able to improve effectively college students’ knowledge about and attitude toward elderly people, preparing them for a increasingly aging society, as well as increase their willingness to choose jobs related to working with elderly people.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 III
Abstract VI
誌謝 X
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究重要性 1
第三節 研究目的 2
第四節 研究問題 2
第五節 預期成果與效益 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 對「老」及「老化」的觀念、刻板印象、迷思 4
第二節 對高齡者的知識與態度的定義與相關理論概念 8
第三節 關於非醫護相關人員對於高齡者之知識與態度的研究
與其研究結果 10
第四節 關於醫護相關人員對高齡者之知識與態度研究及其研究結果 12
第五節 影響選擇與高齡者相關工作意願的因素 17
第六節 相關之測量工具 18
第七節 文獻小結 21
第三章 研究方法 22
第一節 研究概念性架構 22
第二節 研究假設 22
第三節 研究設計、研究對象與研究倫理 23
第四節 研究工具 24
第五節 資料收集與分析 29
第四章 研究結果 31
第一節 受試學生之社會人口學基本特質 31
第二節 受試者量表分數之描述性統計討論 36
第三節 大學生對高齡者知識,與其對高齡者態度間的關係 52
第四節 醫學養成教育之有無對大學生對高齡者知識與態度間的關係 53
第五節 醫學養成教育程度對於對高齡者知識與態度的影響 55
第六節 影響大學生從事與高齡者有關之工作意願的顯著因素 56
第七節 影響大學生對高齡者知識與態度之顯著因素 61
第五章 討論 67
第一節 描述統計討論 67
第二節 推論統計討論 75
第三節 主要結果討論 79
第六章 結論 83
第一節 研究結論 83
第二節 建議 87
第三節 研究限制 88
參考文獻 90
附錄一 同意臨床試驗證明書 101
附錄二 受試者同意書 102
附錄三 人口學特質與跟高齡者接觸經驗之問卷 103
附錄四 FAQ1 老年知識問卷 104
附錄五 Polizzi 版Aging Semantic Differential 106
附錄六 UCLA Geriatrics Attitudes Scale (GAS) 107
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線上資料
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系統識別號 U0026-2307201012143700
論文名稱(中文) 大學生完美主義的因素結構及其與憂鬱症狀和強迫症狀之關係
論文名稱(英文) Multidimensional Structure of Perfectionism and its Relationship with Depressive and Obessive-Cumpulsive Symptoms in Taiwan College Students.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 陳正嘉
學號 s8696109
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-07-02
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
口試委員-董旭英
口試委員-林以正
關鍵字(中) 大學生
多向度完美主義量表
信度
效度
憂鬱症狀
強迫症狀
關鍵字(英) College students
Multidimensional Perfectionism (CMPS)
Reliability
Validity
Depressive Symptoms
Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms
學科別分類
中文摘要 摘要
研究目的:
本研究旨在探討多向度完美主義量表之因素結構,及其與憂鬱症狀和強迫症狀之關係;研究驗證Frost的六向度完美主義建構與二因素次層結構。六向度及次層二因素與憂鬱症狀和強迫症狀之關係,則根據過去文獻分別假設「過度在乎錯誤」、「對行動的懷疑」、「父母批評」及「父母期望」分量表分數,與強迫症狀或憂鬱症狀量尺分數呈低度相關;「個人標準」分量表分數與憂鬱症狀分數及強迫症狀量尺分數呈正相關;而「組織性」分量表分數與憂鬱症狀或強迫症狀分數則無關。

研究方法:
利用柯慧貞主持之國科會研究資料庫進行分析,該研究乃透過分層叢集取樣,由南區大專校院大學生抽樣有效樣本2,190名;自填中文版多向度完美主義量表、柯氏憂鬱量表及身心健康評估量表。

研究結果:
全量表內部一致性為 .938,分量表內部一致性介於 .736~ .903,六向度建構及二次層因素建構適配度指標良好,量表各因素與憂鬱症狀及強迫症狀之關係亦支持上述假設。

研究結論:
中文版多向度完美主義量表具良好之信效度,並支持Frost的六向度完美主義建構與二因素次層結構模型。

關鍵詞:大學生、多向度完美主義量表、信度、效度、憂鬱症狀、強迫症狀
英文摘要 Abstract
Purpose:
The aims of the study were to examine the reliability and validity of the “Chinese Version of Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale”(CMPS), to examine the model of six dimensions of perfectionism with two second-order factors, which was proposed by Frost and the relationships among six dimensions, two second-order factors, depressive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Based on literature review, the following hypotheses were examined. The subscales scores of “Concern over Mistakes”, “Doubting of Action”, “Parental Expectation”, and “Parental Criticism” would have positive relationships to both the depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptom scores. The “Personal Standard” subscale scores would show low relationships to the depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms scores. The “Organization” subscale scores would not be correlated with either depressive or obsessive-compulsive symptom scores.

Methods:
By stratified and cluster sampling, a total of 2,190 college students were recruited from southern Taiwan. The CMPS, Ko Depression Inventory and Symptoms Check List-90-R were administered.

Results:
The results showed the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .938 for the CMPS and ranged within between .736 and .903 for the subscales. Moreover, the model of six dimensions of perfectionism with two-second factors had good model-fit evaluations. In addition, all of the hypotheses were supported.
Conclusions:
The CMPS was a reliable and valid measurement on perfectionism. Moreover the Frost’s model of six dimensions of perfectionism with two second-order structure was supported.

Key words: College students, Multidimensional Perfectionism (CMPS), Reliability, Validity, Depressive Symptoms, Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms
論文目次 目錄
第一章、研究背景‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第一節、序論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第二節、完美主義理論與測量工具發展之歷史沿革‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 2
一、單向度完美主義之理論及其測量工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 2
二、雙向度完美主義之理論及其測量工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 4
三、多向度完美主義之理論及其測量工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 6
第三節、多向度完美主義與憂鬱及強迫症狀之關係‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 11
一、多向度完美主義與憂鬱症狀之關係‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 11
二、多向度完美主義與強迫症狀之關係‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 13
第四節、研究目的與假設‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 16

第二章、研究方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 17
第一節、研究參與者‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 17
第二節、研究工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 18
第三節、研究程序‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 20
第四節、統計分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 21

第三章、研究結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 22
第一節、樣本人口統計學、完美主義量表、憂鬱症狀及強迫症狀之描述統計分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 22
第二節、中文版多向度完美主義量表信度分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 22
第三節、中文版多向度完美主義量表各分量表間相關分析‧‧‧‧‧‧ 23

第四節、中文版多向度完美主義量表效度分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 24
第五節、多向度完美主義之因素與憂鬱及強迫症狀關係之分析‧‧‧‧ 26

第四章、討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 27
第一節、本研究之主要發現與解釋‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 27
第二節、本研究之限制與未來發展方向‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 32
第三節、本研究之應用價值‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 34

參考文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 35

附錄一 基本資料表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 52
附錄二 中文化多向度完美主義量表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 58
附錄三 柯氏憂鬱量表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 61
附錄四 SCL-90-R‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 69
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系統識別號 U0026-2906201112203500
論文名稱(中文) 性格與認知因素對大學生網路成癮之影響:一年追蹤研究
論文名稱(英文) The impact of personality and cognitive factors on the Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan: one-year follow-up
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 健康照護科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Allied Health Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 林旻沛
學號 ta893101
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-23
論文頁數 206頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
口試委員-陸偉明
口試委員-鄭中平
召集委員-葉光輝
口試委員-顏正芳
關鍵字(中) 大學生
網路成癮
神經質
衝動性
上網正向效果預期
拒網自我效能
Acquired Preparedness Model
追蹤性研究
關鍵字(英) college students
Internet addiction
neuroticism
impulsivity
positive outcome expectancy
refusal self-efficacy
acquired preparedness model
follow-up study
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景與目的
隨著網路使用人口增加、上網時數增長及網路普及,網路成癮所造成學業、工作、家庭及身心健康困擾之問題逐漸受到重視,並成為研究新趨勢和關注焦點。在網路使用的族群裡,大學生是網路成癮的高危險族群;但近年對大學生網路成癮之成因探討研究,缺乏取樣具代表性之大樣本;並且國內外研究多為橫斷性,缺乏追蹤性研究。
過去研究指出,性格因素中的神經質與衝動性皆能正向預測網路成癮;另一方面,認知因素中的上網正向效果預期能正向預測網路成癮、拒網自我效能可負向預測網路成癮,但上述變項與網路成癮之間可能的因果關係未明。此外,參考物質濫用研究中所使用的性格與認知整合模式,即所謂的準備習得模式(Acquired Preparedness Model,APM;以下簡稱為APM),推論上網正向效果預期能中介神經質/衝動性對網路成癮行為之影響。另外,過去研究也發現,拒網自我效能可中介上網正向效果預期對網路成癮之影響,但該中介模式亦缺乏縱貫性實徵資料之驗證。
是故,本研究之目的為抽取具代表性之大學生樣本,並以縱貫法釐清1.性格因素(神經質/衝動性)與網路成癮之間可能的因果關係;2.認知因素(上網正向效果預期/拒網自我效能)與網路成癮之間可能的因果關係;3.上網正向效果預期是否透過拒網自我效能影響網路成癮的發展;4.神經質/衝動性是否透過上網正向效果預期影響網路成癮的發展。

研究方法
研究設計:採縱貫法,於九十三學年度針對全國大學生進行抽樣調查,了解網路成癮與性格和認知因素間之關係;而後,再於九十四學年度,針對原先九十三學年度的大一、大二及大三學生進行追蹤,以了解認知和性格因素與網路成癮間可能的因果關係。
研究對象:為使樣本具有全國大學生之代表性,使用分層叢集抽樣法,針對不同男女性別、四年制與二年制,以及北區、中區、南區等因素(分層),以系為單位(叢集),抽取與全國大學生特性分佈相近之4,885名研究參與者。
研究工具:個人資料表、網路使用行為調查表、陳氏網路成癮量表、上網正向效果預期量表、拒網自我效能量表、五大性格因素量表簡版,以及簡式衝動性量表。
研究程序:由受過訓練之研究人員,至所抽樣的大學校院之科系,以班級為單位進行團體施測。施測流程與內容已詳細解說且強調保密性,在填寫研究參與同意書後,開始填寫相關量表;量表回收後進行建檔與嚴謹地除錯;數月後研究參與者收到回饋報告書。
統計分析:本研究以描述性統計、卡方與t檢定、相關分析,以及結構方程模式分析等方式,對研究假設進行分析與檢證。

研究結果
進行施測後,九十三學年度共回收3,996份問卷、回收率達81.80%;而扣除空白、大部分未填答、亂填…等相關無效問卷,最後得到有效樣本3,616名,樣本的反應率為90.49%。在九十四學年度的追蹤調查中,扣除九十三學年度大四學生後(有效樣本數2,920份),共追蹤到1,308份、追蹤率為44.79%。
在控制第一年網路成癮後,第一年神經質與第一年衝動性皆能顯著正向預測第二年網路成癮。
在控制第一年網路成癮後,第一年上網正向效果預期能顯著正向預測第二年網路成癮、第一年拒網自我效能可顯著負向預測第二年網路成癮,並且,第一年拒網自我效能可中介第一年上網正向效果預期對第二年網路成癮之影響。
在控制第一年網路成癮後,第二年認知因子(忘憂增趣)能中介第一年神經質對第二年網路成癮之影響。此外,在控制第一年網路成癮後,第二年認知因子(解禁慾望)也能中介第一年衝動性對第二年網路成癮之影響。

結論
本研究採用縱貫式研究設計,建立網路成癮之解釋模式和作用機制,驗證與支持社會認知理論和APM於解釋大學生網路成癮行為之適用性,並提供實務工作者於大學生網路成癮三級預防工作之參考,且為預防與介入之依據。
在性格因素的實務入界上,可訓練大學生內觀(Mindfulness)技巧與內觀練習活動來降低神經質/衝動性、增進情緒與行為調控能力,進而預防/降低網路成癮行為;在認知因素的實務介入方面,可針對網路成癮大學生,可挑戰/降低其對上網的正向效果預期,以及討論在高危險情境之下如何停止或拒絕上網的策略,進而降低網路成癮的嚴重性。
英文摘要 Background
Due to the increasing population of Internet users, Internet usage time and the prevalence of the Internet, Internet addiction is gaining great attention and has been observed to cause problems in school, work, family and psycho-social health. In the population of Internet users, students are grouped as the most likely to be Internet addicts, especially the high-risk university students. However, recent domestic and international studies on Internet addiction are largely limited to lack of a decent sampling method in the recruitment of a representative university student sample and most researches consist of a cross-sectional study design. Additionally, a longitudinal study design is needed.
Numerous studies have provided empirical evidence to identify the effectiveness of the personality (neuroticism/impulsivity) and cognitive factors (positive outcome expectancy/refusal self-efficacy) to explain and predict Internet addiction. Furthermore, previous studies also have found positive outcome expectancy positively predicted Internet addiction via refusal self-efficacy of Internet use. In order to integrate the personality and cognitive models to explain the addictive behavior, researchers have adopted the acquired preparedness model (APM). APM suggested positive outcome expectancy may mediate the relationships between personality traits and substance use behavior, and many studies have verified the theoretical effectiveness.
However, although personality and cognitive factors have been examined in Internet addiction, the relationship among them remains unclear and has not been used to explain the psychological process of Internet addiction. Therefore, by applying a decent sampling method in recruiting a nationwide representative set of university students, the purpose of this study was to examine whether personality and cognitive models, and APM are applicable in explaining the risks for Internet addiction. The present study adopted a longitudinal study design to explain the cause and effect relationship, and constructed a psychological process model for Internet addiction.

Methods
The present study was constructed using a one-year follow-up longitudinal design. Participants were recruited from universities and colleges throughout Taiwan using both stratified and random cluster sampling. The sample was first stratified by gender and school type: technical (two year vocational school) or non-technical college (university or four year technical school). The sample was then stratified by administrative region: northern, middle, or southern. A cluster random sampling by department was further applied to randomly choose participants from each major. A total number of 4,885 college students were sampled and invited to participant in the study. The Positive Outcome Expectancy and Refusal Self-Efficacy of Internet Use Questionnaire, the Shortened Chinese Version of the Five-Factor Inventory and Short-Form of Impulsive Scale, and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale were used to assess the cognitive and personality factors and the levels of Internet addiction, respectively. Associations between Internet addiction and cognitive and personality factors were examined using by the Structural Equation Model.

Results
Questionnaire response rate was 81.80% in 2004, and college freshmen, sophomores and juniors were follow-up one year later in 2005. The response rate at one-year follow-up was 44.79%. The results show that after controlling for Internet addiction assessed in 2004, Internet addiction in 2005 was significantly and positively predicted by neuroticism, impulsivity and positive outcome expectancy in 2004, and negatively and significantly predicted by refusal self-efficacy of Internet use in 2004. Further analyses revealed that after controlling for Internet addiction in 2004, positive outcome expectancy in 2004 positively predicted Internet addiction in 2005 via refusal self-efficacy of Internet use in 2004. Moreover, this study also discovered that after controlling for Internet addiction in 2004, cognitive factors in 2005 mediated the relationship between personality factors (neuroticism/impulsivity) in 2004 and Internet addiction in 2005.

Discussion
The present study used a longitudinal design to test social cognitive theory and APM for the risk of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan. These results give empirical evidence to verify the theoretical effectiveness of the cognitive and personality factors to Internet addiction, which should be incorporated when designing prevention programs and strategies for helping Internet addicted college students.
論文目次 第一章、緒論 1
第一節、網路成癮問題的重要性 1
壹、台灣網路使用人口日益增加 1
貳、台灣民眾上網時數日益增長 3
参、網路普及後可能的隱憂 4
肆、「網路成癮」成為研究的新趨勢與關注的焦點 5
伍、大學生是網路成癮的高危險族群 7
第二節、網路成癮的定義與衡鑑 9
壹、網路成癮的定義 9
一、成癮的定義 10
二、網路成癮的定義 15
貳、網路成癮的衡鑑 18
第三節、大學生網路成癮可能的心理成因 21
壹、從性格因素來解釋網路成癮可能的心理成因 21
一、神經質 22
(一)神經質的定義 22
(二)高神經質較易產生網路成癮行為 23
二、衝動性 25
(一)衝動性的定義 25
(二)高衝動性較易產生網路成癮行為 26
貳、從認知因素來解釋網路成癮可能的心理成因 29
一、社會認知理論 29
(一)替代性學習 29
(二)認知歷程 30
(三)後續社會認知理論對「成癮行為」的看法 30
二、正向效果預期 32
(一)正向效果預期的定義 32
(二)高正向效果預期較易產生成癮行為 32
1.橫斷性研究 32
2.追蹤性研究 34
三、拒用自我效能 36
(一)拒用自我效能的定義 36
(二)低拒用自我效能較易產生成癮行為 37
1.橫斷性研究 37
2.追蹤性研究 38
四、拒用自我效能中介正向效果預期對成癮行為之影響 40
参、性格與認知因素之整合模式 43
一、APM之理論介紹 43
二、APM之成癮行為相關研究 47
(一)神經質方面的研究 47
(二)衝動性方面的研究 50
第四節、研究目的與假設 54
壹、研究目的 54
貳、研究假設 56
第二章、研究方法 58
第一節、研究設計 58
第二節、研究對象 59
壹、研究對象 59
貳、抽樣方式 60
第三節、研究工具 61
壹、個人資料表 61
貳、網路使用行為調查表 62
参、陳氏網路成癮量表 63
肆、上網正向效果預期量表 64
伍、拒網自我效能量表 65
陸、五大性格因素量表簡版 66
柒、簡式衝動性量表 67
第四節、研究程序 68
第五節、統計分析 69
第三章、研究結果 72
第一節、社會認知理論之驗證 72
壹、樣本之基本資料分析 72
一、第一年全國大樣本之基本資料分析 72
(一)樣本回收率與基本人口統計學分布狀況比較 72
(二)大學生網路使用之現況 75
1.過去一年內平均使用網路之時間、次數及頻率 75
2.最主要上網的時段與地點 75
3.獲得上網的方便性 77
二、第二年有追蹤與未追蹤之基本資料分析 79
(一)追蹤率 79
(二)有追蹤與未追蹤之基本資料比較 79
1.人口統計學方面之比較 79
2.各變項及其因素差異之比較 80
貳、正向效果預期、拒網自我效能與網路成癮的相關性 85
一、第一年各認知因子與第一年網路成癮總分的相關性 85
二、第一年各認知因子與第二年網路成癮總分的相關性 86
參、社會認知理論之驗證 90
一、第一年正向效果預期能正向預測第二年網路成癮 90
二、第一年拒網自我效能可負向預測第二年網路成癮 92
三、Two-Process Theory之驗證 93
第二節、神經質面APM之驗證 100
壹、第一年神經質能正向預測第二年網路成癮 101
貳、第二年認知因子能預測第二年網路成癮 102
參、第一年神經質能預測第二年認知因子 104
肆、第二年認知因子能中介第一年神經質對第二年網路成癮之影響 105
第三節、衝動性面APM之驗證 113
壹、第一年衝動性能正向預測第二年網路成癮 114
貳、第二年認知因子能預測第二年網路成癮 115
參、第一年衝動性能預測第二年認知因子 117
肆、第二年認知因子能中介第一年衝動性對第二年網路成癮之影響 118
第四章、討論 126
第一節、本研究之主要發現與解釋 126
壹、社會認知理論之驗證方面 126
一、樣本基本資料分析探討 126
(一)樣本代表性 126
(二)大學生網路使用現況 128
二、各認知因子與網路成癮之相關性探討 129
三、社會認知理論之驗證探討 132
(一)第一年正向效果預期正向預測第二年網路成癮 132
(二)第一年拒網自我效能負向預測第二年網路成癮 134
(三)第一年拒網自我效能中介第一年正向效果預期對第二年網路成癮之影響 135
貳、神經質面APM之驗證方面 138
一、第一年神經質正向預測第二年網路成癮 138
二、第二年認知因子預測第二年網路成癮 140
三、第一年神經質預測第二年認知因子 141
四、第二年認知因子中介第一年神經質對第二年網路成癮之影響 142
參、衝動性面APM之驗證方面 144
一、第一年衝動性正向預測第二年網路成癮 144
二、第二年認知因子預測第二年網路成癮 146
三、第一年衝動性預測第二年認知因子 148
四、第二年認知因子中介第一年衝動性對第二年網路成癮之影響 150
第二節、本研究之限制與未來研究方向 153
壹、研究設計部分 153
貳、研究參與者部分 154
參、研究工具部分 156
肆、研究變項部分 158
第三節、本研究之學術與應用貢獻 160
壹、學術貢獻方面 160
貳、應用貢獻方面 161
第五章、參考文獻 164
附錄 183
附錄I 個人資料表 183
附錄II 網路使用行為調查表 188
附錄III 陳氏網路成癮量表 191
附錄IV 上網正向效果預期量表 193
附錄V 拒網自我效能量表 195
附錄VI 五大性格因素量表簡版 197
附錄VII 簡式衝動性量表 200
自述 201
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系統識別號 U0026-3007201114535800
論文名稱(中文) 負向生活事件與大學生憂鬱或主觀幸福感之關係:以壓力因應方式為調節變項
論文名稱(英文) The relationship of negative life events to depression and subjective well-being of college students in Taiwan : coping style as a moderator
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 朱育萱
學號 s8696101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-07-28
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
口試委員-陳秀蓉
口試委員-黃惠玲
口試委員-林宜美
關鍵字(中) 負向生活事件
大學生
憂鬱
主觀幸福感
調節變項
壓力緩衝效果
壓力惡化效果
認知再評價/問題解決因應
逃避/情緒因應
尋求社會支持
關鍵字(英) negative life event
college students
depression
subjective well-being
cognitive reappraisal/problem-solving coping
avoidance/emotional coping
seeking social support
stress-exacerbation effect
stress-buffering effect
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
根據心理健康的概念,除了疾病症狀的探討,最佳功能如正向的幸福感也是其中一個向度。研究指出,美國大學生38%有無望感,28%的學生有憂鬱情緒,台灣南部大學生中有40.1%達到輕度憂鬱,13.2%達到中重度憂鬱,4.4%有憂鬱症傾向,顯示大學生具憂鬱的比例和嚴重程度,值得繼續探討大學生的憂鬱。另外,隨著正向心理學的發展、健康心理的提倡,並且學生較佳的心理健康及較少的適應問題與其主觀幸福感較高有關,本研究欲透過探討大學生的憂鬱及主觀幸福感,來了解大學生的心理健康。
根據Lazarus & Folkman(1984)的理論,在壓力下,個體的身心功能會出現變化,個體會使用不同壓力因應策略來因應壓力,並對身心健康結果變項有不同的影響。研究指出逃避或情緒因應常與憂鬱有關,認知再評估或問題解決因應則較常與主觀幸福感有關係,尋求社會支持則與兩者有關。在加入生活壓力的探討後,文獻回顧指出壓力因應方式會調節負向生活壓力與結果變項的關係,可以減緩生活壓力對身心健康的衝擊(壓力緩衝效果)或加據(壓力惡化效果)。以憂鬱為結果變項時,逃避/情緒因應為惡化效果。以主觀幸福感為結果變項時,認知再評估與其呈正向關係且問題解決因應在負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的單一面向(負向情緒)關係中,扮演緩衝的角色(壓力緩衝效果)。
研究目的與假設
本研究以壓力、壓力因應理論來探討大學生的憂鬱與主觀幸福感,欲了解負向生活事件或三種壓力因應方式(認知再評估/問題解決因應、逃避/情緒因應和尋求社會支持)與憂鬱或主觀幸福感的關係,並探討不同的壓力因應方式是否調節負向生活事件與兩結果變項(憂鬱與主觀幸福感)的關係。研究假設負向生活事件與三種壓力因應方式可以顯著預測兩結果變項,並且逃避/情緒因應調節負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係,惡化生活事件對憂鬱的影響(壓力惡化效果);認知再評估/問題解決因應調節負向生活事件對主觀幸福感的關係,減緩生活事件對主觀幸福感的影響(壓力緩衝效果)。
研究方法
參與者 本研究按照中華民國教育統計之高等教育類別分法與教育部網站所提供之歸屬分法,將南部32所大專校院,先後以文、法、商、理、工、農、醫七個區分類別及科技大學與大學比例來做分層抽樣,而後以系為單位進行叢集抽樣,如此所得樣本數共2955人,去除各研究變項的遺漏值後,有效樣本為1680人。
工具 本研究使用的研究工具包含個人基本資料表、生活幸福感量表、最近半年大學生生活事件調查表、壓力因應量表、柯氏情緒量表。
研究程序 本研究為國科會計畫(編號NSC95-2413-H-006-016)的一部分,於2006年8月1日至2007年10月31日止,先進行為期三個月的問卷調查,分別到所抽樣的南區14所大專校院,先採團體班級施測方式進行施測,再進行資料分析。
統計方法 主要以多元迴歸分析來了解負向生活事件和三種壓力因應方式與憂鬱或主觀幸福感的關係並檢測壓力因應方式的調節作用。
結果
如研究假設,負向生活事件和三種壓力因應方式分別可以顯著預測憂鬱和主觀幸福感,並且壓力因應方式具調節效果,為負向生活事件和憂鬱或主觀幸福感的調節變項。當憂鬱為結果變項時,研究發現支持壓力惡化效果,逃避/情緒因應使負向生活事件對憂鬱的影響更嚴重。當主觀幸福感為結果變項時,研究發現支持壓力緩衝效果,認知再評估/問題解決因應使負向生活事件對主觀幸福感的衝擊減少。
結論
個體所使用的壓力因應方式會加重或減緩負向生活事件對憂鬱和主觀幸福感的影響。研究結果顯示大學生在遇到生活壓力時,可透過教導減少使用逃避/情緒因應來減輕憂鬱,多使用認知再評估/問題解決等因應方式來增加主觀幸福感。本研究結果對以壓力、壓力因應、憂鬱及主觀幸福感為研究主題的研究有參考價值,另外亦可作為校園憂鬱防治和健康心理提升計畫之參考。
英文摘要 Abstract
Background
Mental health concept covers the illness and also the levels of optimal functioning such as subjective well-being. Recent researches suggested 28 % of American students reported depression and 38% reported hopeless. In Southern Taiwan, 40.1% of college students reported mild depression, 13.2% reported moderate to severe depression and 4.4% showed symtpoms of major depression disorder. These suggest depression of college students remains an important issue. As the promotion of well-being for mental health and higher level of subjective well-being is asscociated with better mental health and less adaptation problems for students, this study aimed to discuss depression and subjective well-being of college students.
According to stress and coping theory suggested by Lazarus & Folkma (1984), one’s health is impacted by stress and one would adopt different copint styles to deal with different life stressors. Researches indicated avoidance/emotional coping was associated with depression whereas cognitive reappraisal was associated with subjective well-being and seeking social support was related to both. The discussion of negative life event with coping style and two outcomes indicated coping style would moderate the relationship between negative life event and two outcomes as a buffer or excerbator. Avoidance/emotional coping interacted with negative life event excerabted depression. As for subjective well-being, it was found problem-solving coping has stress-buffering effects on the relationship of life stress and emotional well-being.
Objectives and hypotheses
The present study discussed the relationship between negative life event, three coping styles, and two outcomes (i.e., depression and subjective well-being). Further, we explored the role of coping style in relations of negative life event and two outcomes based on stress and coping framework. We hypothesized negative life event and three coping styles predicting two outcomes significantly and further, coping style was a moderator in the relationship of negative life events and each of the outcome. Specifically, avoidance/emotional coping worsen the impact of negative life event on depression and cognitive reappraisal/problem solving coping buffered the impact of negative life event on subjective well-being.
Method
Participants are college students in Southern Taiwan. A total number of 2955 college students from 14 schools were selected through stratified random sampling and cluster sampling. A valid sample excluding missing data of study variables was generated with 1680 students for the statistical analysis.
Materials
Each participant first completed the demographic questionnaire for gender, age, grade level, and several inventories were given to participants including the inventory for surveying negative life events that participants experienced in the past 6 months, the inventory for measuring 15 coping strategies, depression and subjective well-being.
Procedure
This research is a part of research project 「Psychosocial variables, screening, and intervention of college students’ suicidal attempt」(NSC95-2413-H-006-016) supported by National Science Council. Self-report data was collected from August, 2006 to October, 2007. Research was conducted in class with standard testing process. Brief instructions about the purpose, the procedure, the confidentiality and informed consent were given to each participant, and participants were then instructed to complete all inventories. Debriefing and compensation were given after the collection of the data.
Statistical analyses
Characteristics of participants were analyzed with mean. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between negative life event, coping styles, depression and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses and tests of interaction comparison were employed to examine the moderator effect of coping style in the relationship between negative life event and depression or subjective well-being. Data were analyzed with the statistical software SPSS Version 17, and the level of significance was set at alpha < 0.05.
Results
As we hypothesized, negative life event and three coping styles predicted depression and subjective well-being significantly. Further, coping style played a moderating role in the relationship between negative life event and depression or subjective well-being. Specifically, stress-exacerbation effects of avoidance/emotional coping on depression and stress-buffering effects of cognitive reappraisal/problem-solving coping on subjective well-being were found.
Conclusion
Although negative life event influenced depression and subjective well-being, coping styles one adopted would worsen or buffer the impact. Results implicated as more negative life events experienced by college students, depression may be alleviated through less use of avoidance/emotional coping and subjective well-being may be increased through the use of cognitive reappraisal/problem solving coping. These findings would not only contribute to research fields in the discussion of stress, coping, depression and subjective well-being but also provide directions of mental health promotion on university campus, specifically in the prevention and intervention of depression, and the promotion of subjective well-being.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 13
第一節 大學生的心理健康 13
一、大學生的憂鬱 13
二、大學生的主觀幸福感 13
第二節 壓力與壓力因應方式 15
一、壓力的定義 15
二、壓力因應方式 16
第三節 負向生活事件、壓力因應方式與憂鬱 17
一、負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係 17
二、壓力因應方式的調節效果 18
三、壓力因應方式在負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係中所扮演的角色 19
第四節 負向生活事件、壓力因應方式與主觀幸福感 22
一、負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的關係 22
二、壓力因應方式在負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的關係中所扮演的角色 23
第五節 研究目的與研究假設 26
一、研究目的 26
二、研究假設 27
第二章 研究方法 27
第一節 研究對象與抽樣方法 27
一、研究對象 27
二、抽樣方法 28
第二節 研究工具 28
一、個人資料表 28
二、負向生活事件 28
三、主觀幸福感 28
四、壓力因應方式 29
五、憂鬱 30
第三節 研究程序 30
第四節 統計方法與資料處理 31
第三章 研究結果 32
第一節 描述性統計資料 32
第二節 皮爾森相關分析 32
第三節 多元迴歸分析 33
第四章 討論 35
第一節 本研究之主要發現與解釋 35
第二節 研究限制 39
第三節 結論與建議 39
一、 學術貢獻 40
二、 應用價值 40
第五章 參考文獻 43
表目錄
表一 各研究變項的描述統計 53
表二 各研究變項在性別上的差異 54
表三 各研究變項之相關矩陣 55
表四 多元迴歸分析:預測變項預測憂鬱之摘要表 56
表五 多元迴歸分析:預測變項預測主觀幸福感之摘要表 57
圖目錄
圖一 模式圖一:逃避/情緒因應調節負向生活事件和憂鬱的關係 58
圖二 模式圖二:認知再評估/問題解決因應調節負向生活事件和主觀幸福感的關係 59
圖三 逃避/情緒因應的調節效果 60
圖四 認知再評估/問題解決因應的調節效果 61
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